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Encyclopedia of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

Books and Articles

The following bibliography is divided by topics for ease of use. This combines books, printed articles, and on-line articles. Some may appear under more than one heading. At the end there is a list of recommended websites for further information.

General Information

Allen, John Logan. Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1991.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Appleman, Roy E. Lewis and Clark: Historic Places Associated with Their Transcontinental Expedition (1804–06). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1993.

Bakeless, John E. Lewis & Clark: Partners in Discovery. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1996.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. Lewis and Clark: The Great Adventure. New York: Crown, 1970.

Chuinard, Eldon G. "The Actual Role of the Bird Woman." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 26, no. 3 (1976): 18–29.

Cutright, Paul Russell. Lewis & Clark: Pioneering Naturalists. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press/Bison Books, 1989.

Duncan, Dayton, and Ken Burns. Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Eide, Ingvard Henry. American Odyssey: The Journey of Lewis and Clark. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.

Hawke, David Freeman. Those Tremendous Mountains: The Story of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998.

Jackson, Donald. Thomas Jefferson & the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Lavender, David. The Way to the Western Sea: Lewis and Clark Across the Continent. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Ronda, James P. Finding the West: Explorations with Lewis and Clark. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001.

———, ed. Voyages of Discovery: Essays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 1998.

Schmidt, Thomas and Jeremy Schmidt. The Saga of Lewis & Clark into the Uncharted West. New York: DK Publishing, 1999.

Biographical Information Corps of Discovery

Anderson, Irving W. "The Sacagawea Mystique: Her Age, Name, Role and Final Destiny." Columbia 13, no. 3 (Fall 1999). Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/sacagawea.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

———. "Sacajawea?—Sakakawea?—Sacagawea? Spelling—Pronunciation—Meaning." Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisandclark.org/pages/sactext.htm. Downloaded on March 26, 2001.

Appleman, Roy E. "Joseph and Reubin Field, Kentucky Frontiersmen of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Their Father, Abraham." Filson Club Quarterly 49, no. 1 (1975): 5–36.

Archambault, Alan, and Marko Zlatich. "Corps of Volunteers for North Western Discovery, 1804–1806." Military Collector and Historian 44 (winter 1992): 176.

Bakeless, John E. Lewis & Clark: Partners in Discovery. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1996.

Betts, Robert B. In Search of York: The Slave Who Went to the Pacific with Lewis and Clark. Boulder, Colo.: Associated University Press, 1985.

Bratton, Steve. "William E. Bratton of Lewis and Clark Fame." The Bratton Bulletin, Vol. 5, Issue 1, October–December 1995. Available on-line. URL: http://www.gendex.com/~guest/69751/BrattonHomePage/br09011.htm. Updated on February 6, 2000.

Brown, D. Alexander. "The Mysterious Death of a Hero." American History Illustrated 5, no. 9 (1971): 18–27.

Butterfield, Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker." Sacagawea: Captive, Indian Interpreter, Great American Legend: Her Life and Death. ©1998, 2000. Available on-line. URL: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/9626/NativeAmericans.html. Downloaded on March 15, 2002.

Clark, Ella E., and Margot Edmonds. Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

Clarke, Charles G. The Men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Biographical Roster of the Fifty-One Members and a Composite Diary of Their Activities from All Known Sources. Reprint, Lincoln: Bison Books, University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

Colter-Frick, Ruth. "Forty-Four Years with John Colter: Colter, U.S. Mounted Ranger." Yellowstone Net Newspaper. Available on-line. URL: http://www.yellowstone.net/newspaper/news090998.htm. Posted on September 9, 1998.

———. "Forty-Four Years with John Colter: John Colter's Estate." Yellowstone Net Newspaper. Available on-line. URL: http://www.yellowstone.net/newspaper/news100998.htm. Posted on October 9, 1998.

Dawson, Jan C. "Sacagawea: Pilot or Pioneer Mother?" Pacific Northwest Quarterly 83, no. 1 (1992): 22–28.

Dillon, Richard. Meriwether Lewis: A Biography. Santa Cruz: Western Tanager, 1988.

Everley, Steve. "Web Site Dedicated to the History and Memory of Sgt. Charles Floyd 1782–1804." Available on-line. URL: http://www.sgtfloyd.com/default.htm. Updated on October 2, 2001.

Field, Eugene A., and Lucie C. Field. "The Ancestry of Joseph and Reubin Field of The Lewis and Clark Expedition The Corps of Discovery." Available on-line. URL: http://www.luciefield.net/ancjr.html. Updated on January 5, 2001.

Fisher, Vardis. Suicide or Murder?: The Strange Death of Governor Meriwether Lewis. Reprint, Denver, Colo.: Alan Swallow Co., 1962; Reprint, 1993.

Forrest, Earle E. "Patrick Gass, Carpenter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 4 (July 1948): 217–222.

Hall, Brian. "The Slave Who Went with Them." Time (July 8, 2002): p. 60. Available on-line. URL: http://www.time.com/time/2002/lewis_clark/york.html. Downloaded on July 11, 2002.

Harris, Burton. John Colter: His Years in the Rockies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

Hebard, Grace Raymond. Sacagawea: Guide and Interpreter of Lewis and Clark. Reprint ed. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Books, 2002.

Howard, Helen Addison. "The Mystery of Sacagawea's Death." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 58, no. 1 (1967): 1–6.

Hunsaker, Joyce Badgley. Sacagawea Speaks: Beyond the Shining Mountains with Lewis & Clark. Helena, Mont.: Falcon Publishing Co., 2001.

———. "Who Was Sacagawea?" Time (July 8, 2002): pp. 56–57.

Jackson, Donald. "Call Him a Good Old Dog, but Don't Call Him Scannon." We Proceeded On 11, no. 3 (1985).

Jacob, John G. The Life and Times of Patrick Gass, Now Sole Survivor of the Overland Expedition to the Pacific, under Lewis and Clark, in 1804–5–6. Wellsburg, Va.: Jacob & Smith, 1859.

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Corps of Discovery—The Others." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/TheOthers/Others.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

Johnston, Ed. "The Life and Times of John Colter." Available on-line. URL: http://www.edjohnston.com/edsci/colter1.htm. Downloaded on September 16, 2001.

Jones, Landon Y. "Iron Will." Smithsonian 33, no. 5 (August 2002): pp. 96–107.

Kessler, Donna J. The Making of Sacagawea: A Euro-American Legend. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996.

Lange, Robert. "The Expedition's Brothers—Joseph and Reuben Field." We Proceeded On 4, no. 3 (July 1978): 15–16.

———. "George Drouillard (Drewyer)—One of the Two or Three Most Valuable Men on the Expedition." We Proceeded On 5, no. 2 (May 1979): 14–16.

———. "John Shields: Lewis and Clark's Handyman: Gunsmith–Blacksmith–General Mechanic for the Expedition." We Proceeded On 5, no. 3 (July 1979): 14–16.

———. "Private George Shannon: The Expedition's Youngest Member—1785 or 1787–1836." We Proceeded On 8, no. 3 (July 1982): 10–15.

———. "William Bratton—One of Lewis and Clark's Men." We Proceeded On 7, no. 1 (February 1981): 8–11.

Loos, John L. "William Clark: Indian Agent." Kansas Quarterly 3, no. 4 (1971): 29–38.

Mountain Men and the Fur Trade (Research Center): "Accounts of John Colter's Escape from the Blackfeet." From various contemporary sources. Available on-line. URL: http://alt.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/colter.html. Downloaded on May 20, 2001.

Mussulman, Joseph. "My Boy Pomp: About That Name." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/POMPSTOWER/yr_pomp1.htm. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

Nielsen, Quig. "Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Available on-line. URL: http://www.thehistory.net.com/WildWest/articles/1999/1299_text.htm. Downloaded on May 23, 2001.

North Dakota Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Foundation. Members of the Corps of Discovery. Bismarck, N.Dak.: United Printing and Mailing, 2000.

Osgood, Ernest Staples. "Our Dog Scannon—Partner in Discovery." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 26, no. 3 (1976): 8–17.

Ottoson, Dennis R. "Toussaint Charbonneau, a Most Durable Man." South Dakota History 6, no. 2 (1976): 152–185.

PBS Online. Lewis and Clark: Inside the Corps of Discovery. Available on-line. URL: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/inside/index.html. Downloaded on May 18, 2001.

Pringle, Lawrence. Dog of Discovery: A Newfoundland's Adventures with Lewis and Clark. Honesdale, Penn.: Boyds Mills Press, 2002.

Rogers, Ken. "The Engages: Who were the unnamed French watermen?" The Bismarck Tribune. Available on-line. URL: http://www.ndonline.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2001/engages.html. Downloaded on February 16, 2002.

Skarsten, M.O. George Drouillard: Hunter and Interpreter for Lewis and Clark and Fur Trader, 1807–1810. Glendale, Calif: A. H. Clark Co., 1964.

Smith, James S., and Kathryn Smith. "Sedulous Sergeant, Patrick Gass: An Original Biography by Direct Descendants." Montana The Magazine of Western History 5, no. 3 (summer 1955): 20–27.

Sonneborn, Liz. Pomp: The True Story of the Baby on the Sacagawea Dollar. Available on-line. URL: http://pompstory.home.mindspring.com/. Downloaded on May 22, 2001.

Steffen, Jerome O. William Clark: Jeffersonian Man on the Frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977.

Talbot, Margaret. "Searching for Sacagawea." National Geographic 203, no. 2 (February 2003): 68–85.

Wagner, Chad, and Denny Wesney. "Meriwether Lewis: A Portrait of an American Explorer and Hero." Available on-line. URL:http://www.wfu.edu/Academic-departments/History/newnation/lewis/lewisdex.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Woodhouse, Leighton. "Who Killed Meriwether Lewis?" For Salon Ivory Tower. Available on-line. URL: http://www.salon.com/it/feature/1999/03/22feature.html. Posted on March 22, 1999.

Worsham, Alison. "The Placement of York: Where a Black Man Fit in the Hierarchy of the Corps of Discovery." Available on-line. URL: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~sjboyd/lc/allison.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Yater, George H. "Nine Young Men from Kentucky." We Proceeded On. Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Publication No. 11, May 1992: 3.

Others

American Council of Learned Societies. Dictionary of American Biography. "Allen, Paul." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928.

Anderson, Bern. Life and Voyages of Captain George Vancouver, Surveyor of the Sea. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966.

Bakeless, John E. Background to Glory: The Life of George Rogers Clark. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

———. Daniel Boone: Master of the Wilderness. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Business Leader Profiles for Students. "Nicholas Biddle." Gale Research, 1999. Available on-line. URL: http://on-line.valencia.cc.fl.us/ckillinger/AMH2010/AMH2010.Biddlebio2.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Clark, Daniel. Proofs of the corruption of Gen. James Wilkinson, and of his connexion with Aaron Burr, with a full refutation of his slanderous allegations in relation to the character of the principal witness against him. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970. Reprint ed.: Arno Press, New York, 1971.

Connor, Seymour V. "Sibley, John (1757–1837)." Handbook of Texas On-line. URL: http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/on-line/articles/view/SS/fsi2.html. Downloaded on February 6, 2002.

Daniells, Roy. Alexander Mackenzie and the North West. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden. "André Michaux: Explorer, Collector, Botanist." Available on-line. URL: http://www.michaux.org. Downloaded on January 20, 2002.

Davis, Nancy M. "Andrew Ellicott: Astronomer . . . Mathematician . . . Surveyor." Lewis and Clark Heritage Trail Foundation, Philadelphia Chapter. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisandclarkphila.org/philadelphia/philadelphiaellicott.html. Downloaded on February 7, 2002.

DeRosier Jr., Arthur H. "William Dunbar, Explorer." Journal of Mississippi History 25 (July 1963).

Dictionary of American Biography. "Henry Dearborn." Available on-line. URL: http://www.hampton.lib.nh.us/hampton/biog/henrydearborn1.htm. Updated on December 22, 1999.

Douglas, Walter Bond. Manuel Lisa. With hitherto unpublished material, annotated and edited by Abraham P. Nasatir. New York: Argosy-Antiquarian, 1964.

Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone: The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer. New York: Henry Holt, 1992.

Fisher, Robin, and Hugh Johnston, eds. From Maps to Metaphors: The Pacific World of George Vancouver. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1993.

Foley, William E. "The Lewis and Clark Expedition's Silent Partners: The Chouteau Brothers of St. Louis." Missouri Historical Review 77, no. 2 (1983): 131–146.

Foley, William E., and C. David Rice. The First Chouteaus: River Barons of Early St. Louis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

Govan, Thomas Payne. Nicholas Biddle: Nationalist and Public Banker, 1786–1844. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.

Graveline, Paul. "Joseph Gravelines and the Lewis and Clark Expedition." We Proceeded On 3, no. 4 (October 1977): 5–6.

Hay, Robson, and M. R. Werner. The Admirable Trumpeter: A Biography of General James Wilkinson. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1941.

Hosack, David. Tribute to the memory of the late Caspar Wistar, M.D.: professor of anatomy, &c. in the University of Pennsylvania, president of the American Philosophical Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge, &c. New York: Printed by C.S. Van Winkle, 1818.

Hudson, Mary A. "Amos Stoddard and the Territory of Missouri." From The Heritage of Missouri. Available on-line. URL: http://www.rootsweb.com/~mostodd2/stod-settlers/amos-stod.htm. Downloaded on March 3, 2002.

Jackson, Donald. The Journals of Zebulon Montgomery Pike with Letters and Related Documents. 2 vols. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966.

Jefferson, Thomas. Jefferson: Writings: Autobiography/Notes on the State of Virginia/Public and Private Papers/Addresses/Letters. New York: Library of America, 1984.

Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1990.

Kuralt, Charles. "Tribute to the Noted French Botanist Andre Michaux." Grandfather Mountain, August 28, 1994. URL: http://www.grandfather.com/museum/michaux/CKmichaux.htm. Downloaded on January 20, 2002.

Laroque, François. The Journal of François Larocque. Reprint, Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1981.

Madsen, Axel. John Jacob Astor: America's First Millionaire. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Marshall, Thomas Maitland. The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1926.

Mathews, Catherine Van Cortland. Andrew Ellicott: His Life and Letters. Alexander, N.C.: WorldComm, 1997.

McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

McLaughlin, Jack. Jefferson and Monticello: The Biography of a Builder. Reprint ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1990.

Mussulman, Joseph. "François-Antoine Larocque." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisclark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/LAROCQUE/am_laroc-mmenu.htm. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

Oglesby, Richard E. Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Ord, George. Sketch of the Life of Alexander Wilson. Philadelphia: H. Hall, 1828.

Pugh, Ellen. Brave His Soul: The Story of Prince Madog of Wales and His Discovery of America in 1170. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1970.

Pursh, Frederick. Journal of a Botanical Excursion in the Northeastern Parts of the States of Pennsylvania and New York during the year 1807. Edited by William. M. Beauchamp. Port Washington, N.Y.: I. J. Friedman, 1969.

Reveal, James L. "Frederick Traugott Pursh (1774–1820)." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: A Nomenclatural Morass. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/REVEAL/bo_purs1.htm. Downloaded on March 1, 2002.

Rush, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush; His "Travels through life" Together with his Commonplace Book for 1789–1813. Edited with introduction and notes by George W. Corner. Princeton, N.J.: Published for the American Philosophical Society by Princeton University Press, 1948.

Savage Jr., Henry, and Elizabeth J. Savage. André and François André Michaux. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1986.

Sellers, Charles Coleman. Charles Willson Peale. New York: Scribner, 1969.

———. Mr. Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art. New York: Norton, 1980.

Smith, James K. David Thompson: Fur Trader, Explorer, Geographer. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Stein, Susan R. The Worlds of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993.

Stevens, John Austin. Albert Gallatin: An American Statesman. New York: AMS Press, 1998.

Stokesbury, James L. "John Jacob Astor: A Self-Invented Money-Making Machine." Available on-line. URL: http://www.thehistorynet.com/AmericanHistory/articles/1997/12972_text.htm. Downloaded on May 15, 2001.

Terrell, John Upton. Zebulon Pike: The Life and Times of an Adventurer. New York: Weybright and Talley, 1968.

Van Noppen, John James, and Ina Woestemeyer Van Noppen. Daniel Boone, Backwoodsman: The Green Woods Were His Portion. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Press, 1966.

Williams, David. John Evans and the Legend of Madoc, 1770–1779. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1963.

Wilson, Alexander. The Life and Letters of Alexander Wilson. Edited by Clark Hunter. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1983.

Worster, Donald. A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Exploration on the Expedition

Allen, John Logan. "Lewis and Clark on the Upper Missouri: Decision at the Marias." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 21, no. 3 (1971): 2–17.

Amacker, Mary Ann. "Captain Clark and Party's Journey over Tillamook Head (Clark's Point of View) to the Site of the Beached Whale at Ecola Creek." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov.focl/whale1.htm. Downloaded on May 25, 2001.

Discovery Writers. Lewis & Clark in the Bitterroot. Stevensville, Mont.: Stoneydale Press Publishing Co., 1999.

———. Lewis & Clark on the Upper Missouri. Stevensville, Mont.: Stoneydale Press Publishing Co., 2000.

Erickson, Vernon. "Lewis and Clark on the Upper Missouri." North Dakota History 40, no. 2 (1973): 34–37.

Howard, Ella Mae. Lewis and Clark's Exploration of Central Montana. Great Falls, Mont.: Lewis and Clark Interpretative Association, 1993.

Mussulman, Joseph. "Nathaniel Pryor's Mission." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisclark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/PRYOR/yr_pryor-mmenu.htm. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

———. "Ocean in View." From: Discovering Lewis and Clark: The Extent of Our Journey. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/FTCCOLUMBIA/fc_stac1.htm. Downloaded on March 10, 2002.

Osgood, Ernest Staples. "Clark on the Yellowstone 1806." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 18, no. 3 (1968): 9–29.

Ronda, James P. Finding the West: Explorations with Lewis and Clark. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

Saindon, Bob. "The River Which Scolds at all Others: An Obstinate Blunder in Nomenclature." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 26, no. 3 (1976): 2–7.

Simon-Smolinski, Carol. "The Corps of Discovery on the Clearwater River." Idaho's Northwest Passage. Available on-line. URL: http://www.idahonwp.org/togo/bmc/lc_clear.htm. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Wells, Merle. "Lewis & Clark's Water Route to the Northwest: The Exploration That Finally Laid to Rest the Myth of a Northwest Passage." Columbia 8, no. 4 (Winter 1994/95). Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/water_route.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

Campsites, Route, and Trails

Appleman, Roy E. "Lewis and Clark: The Route 160 Years After." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 57 (January 1966).

———. "The Lost Site of Camp Wood: The Lewis and Clark Winter Camp, 1803–04." Journal of the West 7, no. 2 (1968): 270–274.

Cavan, Seamus. Lewis and Clark and the Route to the Pacific. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

Duncan, Dayton. "The Vote: ‘Station Camp,' Washington." Columbia Magazine 15, no. 1 (Spring 2001). Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/vote.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

Ehrenberg, Ralph. "Mapping on the Trail." Route Mapping on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_on_trail.html. Downloaded on March 1, 2002.

Fanselow, Julie. The Traveler's Guide to the Lewis and Clark Trail. Helena, Mont.: Falcon Press, 1994.

Fifer, Barbara, and Vicky Soderberg. Along the Trail with Lewis and Clark. Great Falls, Mont.: Montana Magazine, 1998.

Henrikson, Stephen E. "This Place of Encampment." American History Illustrated 20, no. 5 (1985): 22–33.

Lankiewicz, Donald P. "The Camp on Wood River: A Winter of Preparation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 75, no. 2 (1982): 115–120.

Mayer, Robert W. "Wood River, 1803–1804." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 61, no. 2 (1968): 140–149.

National Park Service. "Lewis and Clark at Wood River 1803–1804, Part II." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/L&cWood2.htm. Downloaded on September 14, 2001.

———. "A moment in history: The Salt Works, Seaside, Oregon." Available on-line. URL: http://www.seasurf.com/~kirkham/saltwork.html. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

Peebles, John J. "On the Lolo Trail: Route and Campsites of Lewis and Clark." Idaho Yesterdays 9, no. 4 (1965): 2–15; and 10, no. 2 (1966): 16–27.

———. "Rugged Waters: Trails and Campsites of Lewis and Clark in the Salmon River Country." Idaho Yesterdays 8, no. 2 (1964): 2–17.

———. "Trails and Campsites in Idaho." Lewis and Clark in Idaho. Boise: Idaho Historical Series No. 16 (December 1966).

Plamondon, Martin. Lewis and Clark Trail Maps: A Cartographic Reconstruction. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 2000.

Rasmussen, Jay. "Report on the 1997 Archaeological Excavations at Fort Clatsop." Lewis and Clark on the Information Superhighway. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lcarchive.org/fcexcav.html. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Rogers, Ken. "Fort Mandan Winter: on the banks of a river of ice." The Bismarck Tribune. Available on-line. URL: http:// www.ndon-line.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2001/winter.html. Downloaded on January 29, 2002.

Ronda, James P. "A Most Perfect Harmony: Life at Fort Mandan." We Proceeded On 14, no. 4 (February 1987).

Salter, Cathy Riggs. "Lewis and Clark's Lost Missouri: A Mapmaker Re-creates the River of 1804 and Changes the Course of History." National Geographic 201, no. 4 (April 2002): 89–97.

Schmidt, Thomas. National Geographic Guide to the Lewis & Clark Trail. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 1998.

Space, Ralph S. The Lolo Trail: A History and a Guide to the Trail of Lewis and Clark, 2d ed. Missoula: Historic Montana Publications, 2001.

Woolworth, Alan R. "New Light on Fort Mandan: A Wintering Post of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific, 1804–1806." North Dakota History 55, no. 3 (1988): 3–13.

Supplies, Equipment, Gifts, Provisions, and Boats

The Bead Site. "The Beads of Lewis and Clark." Available on-line. URL: http://www.thebeadsite.com/FRO-LaC.htm. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Bedini, Silvio A. "The Scientific Instruments of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Great Plains Quarterly 4, no. 1 (1984): 54–69.

Boss, Richard C. "Keelboat, Pirogue, and Canoe: Vessels Used by the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery." Nautical Research Journal 38, no. 2 (1993): 68–87.

Cutright, Paul Russell. "Lewis and Clark Indian Peace Medals." Missouri Historical Bulletin 24, no. 2 (1968): 160–167.

———. "Lewis has successfully outfitted the Expedition." From Contributions of Philadelphia to Lewis and Clark History. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisandclarkphila.org/philadelphiacutright37.html. Updated on August 13, 2001.

Fort Clatsop National Memorial. "Candle Making." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/Focl/candles3.htm. Posted on April 30, 1999.

Fritz, Harry. "Store Room." From The Lewis & Clark Expedition: A Western Adventure—A National Epic. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/te_cache.htm. Downloaded on February 21, 2002.

Hunt, Robert R. "Gills and Drams of Consolation: Ardent Spirits on the Lewis and Clark Expedition." We Proceeded On 17, no. 3 (February 1991).

Jackson, Donald. "Some Books Carried by Lewis and Clark." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 16 (1959): 3–13.

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Food." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing/Food/Food.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

———. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Indian Presents and Trade Goods." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing/Gifts/Gifts.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

———. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Medical Supplies of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing/Medicine/Medicine.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

———. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Peace Medals." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing/PeaceMedals/ PeaceMedals.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

Jeffrey, Joseph D. "Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry." We Proceeded On Vol. 20 (November 1994).

Lentz, Gary. "Captain Lewis's Air Rifle." Washington State Chapter Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation January 2000 Newsletter. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lcarchive.org/wa_n0100.html. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Lewis-Clark.org. "Portable Inkwell." From Discovering Lewis and Clark. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/FTCLVIRTUAL/te_inkwl.htm. Downloaded on March 10, 2002.

Mussulman, Joseph. "Bull Boats: Float Craft on the Middle Missouri." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/YELLOWSTONE/in_bull-boat.htm. Downloaded on March 1, 2002.

———. "Critical Shortages." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Fort Clatsop. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/FTCLVIRTUAL/pl_nico1.htm. Downloaded on March 10, 2002.

———. "A Neighborly Gift." From Discovering Lewis and Clark. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/FTCCOLUMBIA/fc_ngift.htm. Downloaded on March 19, 2002.

National Geographic. "Lewis and Clark Expedition Supplies." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/resources.html. Downloaded on May 18, 2003.

PBS Online. Lewis and Clark: To Equip and Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/inside/equip.html. Downloaded on May 18, 2001.

Russell, Carl P. "The Guns of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." North Dakota History 27 (1960): 25–34.

Stanton, Lucia C. "Jefferson Indian Peace Medal." Monticello (Resources). Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/resources/interests/peace_medal.html. Updated on April 27, 2001.

Journals and Letters

Abrams, Rochonne. "A Song of the Promise of the Land: The Style of the Lewis and Clark Journals." Missouri Historical Society Bulletin 32, no. 3 (1976): 141–157.

Barth, Gunther. "Timeless Journals: Reading Lewis and Clark with Nicholas Biddle's Help." Pacific Historical Review 63, no. 4 (1994): 499–519.

Bergon, Frank, ed. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Reprint ed. New York: Penguin, 1995.

Bolas, Deborah W. "Books from an Expedition: A Publications History of the Lewis and Clark Journals." Gateway Heritage 2, no. 2 (1981): 30– 35.

Butler, James Davie, ed. The New Found Journal of Charles Floyd, a sergeant under Captains Lewis and Clark. Worcester, Mass.: Press of Charles Hamilton, 1894.

Clark, William, and Jonathan Clark. Dear Brother: Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002.

Cutright, Paul Russell. A History of the Lewis and Clark Journals. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.

———. "Meriwether Lewis and the Marias River." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 18, no. 3 (1968): 30–43.

Furtwangler, Albert. Acts of Discovery: Visions of America in the Lewis and Clark Journals. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Jackson, Donald. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents, 1783–1854. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.

———. "The Race to Publish Lewis and Clark." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 85, no. 2 (1961): 163–177.

Jefferson, Thomas. "President Jefferson writes to Reuben Lewis." Lewis & Clark in North Dakota. Available on-line. URL: http://dorgan.senate.gov/lewis_and_clark/jef1.html. Downloaded on January 17, 2002.

Jones, Landon Y. The Essential Lewis and Clark. New York: The Ecco Press, HarperCollins, 2000.

Lewis, Meriwether. David Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition; an unpublished account of the Lewis and Clark Expedition written by Captain Meriwether Lewis and copied by David Thompson of the North West Company. Vancouver, B.C.: Library's Press, 1959.

Lewis, Meriwether, and William Clark. The History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Edited by Elliott Coues; 4 vols., 1893, Harper. Reprinted in 3 vols., New York: Dover Publications., 1979.

———. History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean: Performed during the Years 1804–5–6 by Order of the Government of the United States. Prepared for the press by Paul Allen; in two volumes. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep; New York: Abm. H. Inskeep, 1814. Reprints: New Amsterdam Book Company, New York, 1902; Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1961.

Lewis, Meriwether, et al. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Edited by Bernard Devoto. Boston: Mariner Books, 1997.

MacGregor, Carol Lynn. "The Role of the Gass Journal." We Proceeded On 16, no. 4 (November 1990): 13–17.

———, ed. The Journals of Patrick Gass, Member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1997.

Moulton, Gary E., ed. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 13 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983–2001.

———. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: The Journals of John Ordway, May 14, 1804–September 23, 1806, and Charles Floyd, May 14–August 18, 1804. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

———. "The Missing Journals of Meriwether Lewis." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35, no. 3 (1985): 28–39.

Quaife, Milo M., ed. The Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis and John Ordway: Kept on the Expedition of Western Exploration, 1803–1806. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1916.

Thwaites, Reuben G., ed. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–1806; printed from the original manuscripts in the library of the American philosophical society and by direction of its committee on historical documents, together with manuscript material of Lewis and Clark from other sources, including note-books, letters, maps, etc., and the journals of Charles Floyd and Joseph Whitehouse, now for the first time published in full and exactly as written. 8 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1904–05.

———, ed. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Atlas. Scituate, Mass: Digital Scanning, Inc., 2000.

Other Aspects of the Expedition

American Philosophical Society. "Treasures of the APS: Lewis and Clark's Specimens as Sketched by Charles Willson Peale." Available on-line. URL: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/treasures/pealecw.htm. Downloaded on March 1, 2002.

Chuinard, Eldon G. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark Co., 1979.

Criswell, Elijah H. Lewis and Clark: Linguistic Pioneers. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1940.

Cutright, Paul Russell. "Jefferson's Instructions to Lewis and Clark." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 22, no. 3 (1966): 303–320.

———. "Meriwether Lewis Prepares for a Trip West." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 23, no. 1 (October 1966).

Fent, Cindy. "Some Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." North Dakota History 53, no. 1 (1986): 24–28.

Fields, Wayne D. "The Meaning of Lewis and Clark." Gateway Heritage 2, no. 2 (1981): 2–7.

Gill, Larry. "The Great Portage: Lewis and Clark's Overland Journey Around the Great Falls of the Missouri River." We Proceeded On 1, no. 4 (fall 1975): 6–9.

Gottfred, A. "Lewis & Clark: A Canadian Perspective." Northwest Journal 11: 1–13. Available on-line. URL: http://www.northwestjournal.ca/XI1.htm. Downloaded on February 27, 2002.

Hunt, Robert R. "The Blood Meal: Mosquitoes and Agues on the Lewis and Clark Expedition." We Proceeded On 18, no. 3 (May and August 1992).

———. "Crime and Punishment on the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Military Collector and Historian 41 (summer 1989): 56–65.

———. "The Espontoon: Captain Lewis's Magic Stick." We Proceeded On 16, no. 1 (February 1990): 12–18.

———. "Merry to the Fiddle: The Musical Amusement of the Lewis and Clark Party." We Proceeded On 14, no. 4 (November 1988).

Jefferson, Thomas. Jefferson's Confidential Letter to Congress. From Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/l&c_congress_letter.html. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

———. Jefferson's Instructions to Meriwether Lewis. From Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/l&c_lewis_letter.html. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

———. Message from the President of the United States Communicating Discoveries Made in Exploring the Missouri, Red River and Washita, by Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, and Mr. Dunbar: with a statistical account of the countries adjacent. Washington, D.C.: A. & G. Way, printers, 1806.

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: What did the men who went west with Lewis and Clark wear?" Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing/Clothing/Clothing.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

Jones, Landon Y. "Leading Men: Commanding, cooperative, confident, complementary—Why Lewis and Clark were perfectly cast as co-CEOs." Time (July 8, 2002): 54–57. Available on-line. URL: http://www.time.com/time/2002/lewis_clark/lcaptains.html. Downloaded on July 11, 2002.

Kyle, Robert. "Bargains Galore at Lewis & Clark's Yard Sale." Maine Antique Digest, November 1997. Available on-line. URL: http://www.maineantiquedigest.com/articles/lewi1197.htm. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Lange, Robert. "$2,500.00 vs. $38,722.25—The Financial Outlay for the Historic Enterprise." We Proceeded On 1, no. 2 (February 1975): 17–18.

Large, Arlen. "‘Additions to the Party': How an Expedition Grew and Grew." We Proceeded On 16, no. 1 (February 1990): 4–11.

———. "All in the Family: The In-House Honorifics of Lewis and Clark." Names 42, no. 4 (1994): 269–277.

———. "Fort Mandan's Dancing Longitude." We Proceeded On 13, no. 1 (February 1987).

———. "‘It Thundered and Lightened': The Weather Observations of Lewis and Clark." We Proceeded On 12, no. 2 (May 1986).

———. "Lewis and Clark: Part Time Astronomers." We Proceeded On 5, no. 1 (February 1979).

Lewis & Clark in North Dakota. "Report to Congress." Available on-line. URL: http://dorgan.senate.gov/lewis_and_clark/message.html. Downloaded on May 17, 2001.

Loos, John L. "William Clark's Part in the Preparation of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society (July 1954).

Merritt, James, et al. "Shooting the Moon (and the Sun and Stars): Lewis and Clark as Celestial Navigators." We Proceeded On 27, no. 4 (November 2001).

Moulton, Gary E. "A Note on the White Pirogue." We Proceeded On 12, no. 2 (May 1986): 22.

Mussulman, Joseph. "In Greatest Harmony: ‘Medicine Songs' on the Lewis and Clark Trail." We Proceeded On 23, no. 4 (August 1997).

———. "Music on the Trail." From Discovering Lewis and Clark. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/MUSIC/mu_mmenu.htm. Downloaded on March 19, 2002.

Nicandri, David. "The Independence Hall of the West." Washington State Historical Society. Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/independence_hall.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

Paton, Bruce C. Lewis and Clark: Doctors in the Wilderness. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 2001.

Peck, David J. Or Perish in the Attempt: Wilderness Medicine in the Lewis & Clark Expedition. Helena, Mont.: Farcountry Press, 2002.

Preston, Richard S. "The Accuracy of the Astronomical Observations of Lewis and Clark." APS Proceedings, June 2000. Available on-line. URL: http://www.aps-pub.com/proceedings/jun00/Preston.pdf. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Rasmussen, Jay, comp. "Old Newspaper Accounts Regarding Lewis and Clark." Lewis and Clark on the Information Superhighway. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lcarchive.org/newspapers.html. Updated on May 24, 2000.

———, comp. "Visual Resources and Artifacts." Lewis & Clark on the Information Superhighway. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lcarchive.org/visualresources.html. Updated on November 6, 2001.

Rogers, Ken. "Heart and Sole: Expedition Members Placed One Tender Foot in Front of the Other." The Bismarck Tribune. Available on-line. URL: http://www.ndonline.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2001/sole.html. Downloaded on February 21, 2002.

———. "A Life Saver: Espontoon: Lewis' Trusty Pike." The Bismarck Tribune. Available on-line. URL: http://www.ndonline.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2001/saver.html. Downloaded on February 21, 2002.

———. "Roughing It: Give Me Shelter." The Bismarck Tribune. Available on-line. URL: http://www.ndon-line.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2001/rough.html. Downloaded on February 16, 2002.

Ronda, James P. "‘A Knowledge of Distant Parts': The Shaping of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 41, no. 4 (1991): 4–18.

Seelye, John. "Beyond the Shining Mountains: The Lewis and Clark Expedition as an Enlightenment Epic." Virginia Quarterly Review 63, no. 1 (1987): 36–53.

Slosberg, Daniel. "Instruments of the Expedition." Cruzatte! Study Guide. Available on-line. URL: http://www.cruzatte.com/studyguide/5_instruments.html. Downloaded on February 19, 2002.

Stein, Joel. "Have You Ever Tried Ashcakes?" Time (July 8, 2002): 74–76. Available on-line. URL: http://www.time.com/time/2002/lewis_clark/lcuisine.html. Downloaded on July 11, 2002.

Werner Wilbur P. "Disaster at Montana's Two Medicine River Fight Sight." We Proceeded On 6, no. 3 (August 1980): 12–13.

Wesselius, Allen "Doc." "A Lasting Legacy: The Lewis and Clark Place Names of the Pacific Northwest." Columbia: Part I, 15, no. 1 (spring 2001); Part II, 15, no. 2 (summer 2001); Part III, 15, no. 3 (fall 2001); Part IV, 15, no. 4 (winter 2001). Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/lc-articles.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

Will, Drake W. "Lewis and Clark: Westering Physicians." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 21, no. 4 (1971): 2–17.

———. "The Medical and Surgical Practice of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 14, no. 3 (1959): 273–297.

Young, F. G. "The Higher Significance in the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 6, no. 1 (March 1905).

Indians: Ethnology, History, and Specific Nations

Andrist, Ralph K. The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Cash, Joseph H., and Gerald W, Wolff. The Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa). Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1974.

Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians; Written during Eight Years' Travel (1832–1839). Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1973.

Chapman, Carl H. The Origin of the Osage Indian Tribe. New York: Garland Pub., Inc., 1974.

Clark, W. P. The Indian Sign Language. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Criswell, Elijah H. Lewis and Clark: Linguistic Pioneers. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1940.

Denig, Edwin Thompson. The Assiniboine. Edited by J. N. B. Hewitt. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.

Drucker, Philip. Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955.

Edmunds, R. David. The Otoe-Missouria People. Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1976.

Emerson, William Dana. Indian Corn. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1978.

Ewers, John C. The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.

———. "Plains Indian Reactions to the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 16 (January 1966): 2–12.

Fahey, John. The Flathead Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974.

Foley, William E., and C. David Rice. "The Return of the Mandan Chief." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 29, no. 3 (1979): 2–15.

Gasque, Thomas J. "Lewis and Clark's Onomastic Assumptions." Midwestern Folklore 21 (spring–fall 1995): 30–38.

Hagen, Cecil. "Liberated Women? . . . Not Those Lewis and Clark Met on Their Way." Pacific Northwesterner 25, no. 2 (1981): 17–25.

Heidenreich, C. Adrian. "The Native Americans' Yellowstone." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35 (autumn 1985): 56–67.

Jackson, Donald. "Lewis and Clark among the Oto." Nebraska History 41 (1960): 237–248.

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. "The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery: Native Peoples." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/TheJourney/NativePeoples.htm. Downloaded on April 11, 2002.

Jones, Gene. "The Mandan Indians, Descendants of the Vikings." Real West 9, no. 47 (May 1966): 31–32.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.

Kartunnen, Frances. Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides and Survivors. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Kawashime, Yasuhide. "Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian–White Relations in the Early American Frontier." The American Indian Quarterly 13, no. 1 (winter 1989): 1–14.

Lewis & Clark in North Dakota. "Personal Profiles: Profile of Three Chiefs." Available on-line. URL: http://www.ndlewisandclark.com/profiles.html. Downloaded on February 2, 2002.

Lowie, Robert H. The Crow Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Madsen, Brigham D. The Lemhi: Sacagawea's People. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1979.

Majors, Harry M., ed. "Lewis and Clark Among the Sayleesh Indians: Ross Hole, September 4–5, 1805." Northwest Discovery 7, no. 32–33 (1987): 126–246.

McBeth, Kate. The Nez Perces Since Lewis and Clark. 1908. Reprint, Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1993.

Meyer, Roy W. The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.

National Park Service. "Knife River Indian Villages: National Historic Site." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/knri/overview.htm. Downloaded on April 14, 2002.

Nichols, William. "Lewis and Clark Probe the Darkness." American Scholar 49, no. 1 (1979/80): 94–101.

Paper, Jordan. Offering Smoke: The Sacred Pipe and Native American Religion. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1988.

PBS Online. Lewis and Clark: The Native Americans. Available on-line. URL: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html. Downloaded on May 18, 2001.

Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. "The Ethnography of Lewis and Clark." Available on-line. URL: http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/Lewis_and_Clark/default.html. Downloaded on March 22, 2002.

Pioneer Middle School. "The Wenatchee Valley Plateau Indian Culture." Available on-line. URL: http://pio.wsd.wednet.edu/SAMMgrant/NativeAm/homepage.shtml. Updated on September 14, 2001.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Indian Peace Medals in American History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Ray, Verne F. "The Chinook Indians in the Early 1800s." In The Western Shore: Oregon Country Essays Honoring the American Revolution. Edited by Thomas Vaughan, pp. 121–150. Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1976.

———. Lewis and Clark and the Nez Perce Indians. Washington, D.C.: The Westerners, 1971.

Ray, Verne F., and Nancy O. Lurie. "The Contributions of Lewis and Clark to Ethnography." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 44 (1954): 358–370.

Rees, John E. "The Shoshoni Contribution to Lewis and Clark." Idaho Yesterdays 2 (1958): 2–13.

Relander, Click (Now-Tow-Look). Strangers on the Land: A Historiette of a Longer Story of the Yakima Nation's Efforts to Survive Against Great Odds. Yakima, Wash.: Franklin Press, 1962.

Ronda, James P. "‘A Chart in His Way': Indian Cartography and the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Great Plains Quarterly 4, no. 1 (1984): 43–53.

———. Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

———. "Exploring the Explorers: Great Plains Peoples and the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Great Plains Quarterly 13, no. 2 (1993): 81–90.

Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown. The Chinook Indians: Traders of the Lower Columbia River. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.

Saindon, Bob. "The Lost Vocabularies of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." We Proceeded On 3 (1977): 4–6.

Sappington, Robert Lee. "Lewis and Clark Expedition Among the Nez Perce Indians: The First Ethnographic Study in the Columbia Plateau." Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 23 (1989): 1–33.

Sauter, John, and Bruce Johnson. Tillamook Indians of the Oregon Coast. Portland, Oreg.: Binfords and Mort, 1974.

Stewart, Frank Henderson. "Hidatsa Origin Traditions Reported by Lewis and Clark." Plains Anthropologist 21, no. 72 (1976): 89–92.

Stewart, Hilary. Indian Fishing: Early Methods on the Northwest Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.

Trenholm, Virginia, and Maurine Carley. The Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Revised ed. New York: Checkmark Books, 1999.

———. "Wars for the West." In Atlas of the North American Indian. Revised ed. New York: Checkmark Books, 1999, pp. 147–182.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Warner, Sky. "The Sacred Pipe." Available on-line. URL: http://www.ouachitalk.com/sacred.htm. Downloaded on April 10, 2002.

Washington State University. "Lewis and Clark Among the Indians of the Pacific Northwest. Excerpts from the Journals of the Expedition of the Corps of Discovery: Flora and Fauna (recorded at Fort Clatsop)." Available on-line. URL: http://www.libarts.wsu.edu/history/Lewis_Clark/LCEXP_Flor.html. Downloaded on May 20, 2001.

Wells, Merle. "The Importance of ‘Old Toby.'" Lewis & Clark in Idaho. Available on-line. URL: http://idptv.state.id.us/lc/oldtoby.html. Downloaded on May 25, 2001.

Wood, W. Raymond. "David Thompson at the Mandan-Hidatsa Villages, 1797–1798: The Original Journals." Ethnohistory 24 (1977): 329–342.

Writers' Program, Montana. Land of Nakoda; the story of the Assiniboine Indians. From the tales of the Old Ones told to First Boy (James L. Long), with drawings by Fire Bear (William Standing). Helena, Mont.: State Pub. Co., 1942. Reprint, AMS Press, New York, 1975.

Natural History

Academy of Natural Sciences. "The Lewis and Clark Herbarium." Available on-line. URL: http://www.acnatsci.org/lewis&clark/. Downloaded on May 17, 2001.

Arno, Stephen F. Northwest Trees. Seattle, Wash.: The Mountaineers, 1977.

Beavers: Wetland and Wild Life. "The Beaver (Castor Canadensis)." Available on-line. URL: http://www.beaversww.org/beaver.html. Downloaded on December 10, 2001.

Botkin, Daniel B. Our Natural History: The Lessons of Lewis & Clark. New York: Putnam, 1995.

Brooklyn College, City University of New York. "Dinosaur History: William Clark." Available on-line. URL: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/chamber/clark.html. Downloaded on February 26, 2002.

Burroughs, Raymond Darwin, ed. The Natural History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995.

Calverley, Dorthea. "The Beaver: Foundation of the Fur Trade." Available on-line. URL: http://www.calverley.ca/Part%2002%20-%20Fur%20Trade/2-001.html. Downloaded on December 10, 2001.

Chisholm, Colin. "Undaunted Botany." Sierra Magazine. (May/June 2002): 47–49.

Cutright, Paul Russell. "Lewis and Clark and Cottonwood." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 22 (October 1965): 35–44.

———. Lewis & Clark: Pioneering Naturalists. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press/Bison Books, 1989.

———. "Meriwether Lewis: Botanist." Oregon Historical Quarterly 69 (June 1968): 148–170.

———. "Meriwether Lewis: Zoologist." Oregon Historical Quarterly 69 (June 1968).

———. "The Odyssey of the Magpie and the Prairie Dog." Missouri Historical Society Bulletin 23, no. 3 (1967): 215–228.

Dary, David A. The Buffalo Book: The Full Saga of the American Animal. Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press/Ohio University Press, 1989.

Flores, Dan. "The American Bison." From Discovering Lewis and Clark. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/bison/bison_flores-history.htm. Downloaded on March 21, 2002.

Graves, Russell A. The Prairie Dog: Sentinel of the Plains. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2001.

Jameson, Ronald J. "Translocated Sea Otter Populations off the Oregon and Washington Coasts." Available on-line. URL: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/pn175.htm. Downloaded on April 14, 2001.

Johnson, Morris D., and Joseph Knue. Feathers from the Prairie: A Short History of Upland Game Birds. 2d ed. Bismarck: North Dakota Game and Fish Dept., 1989.

Knue, Joseph. Big Game of North Dakota: A Short History. Bismarck: North Dakota Game and Fish Dept., 1991.

McNamee, Thomas. The Grizzly Bear. New York: Viking Penguin, 1990.

Meehan, Thomas. "The Plants of Lewis and Clark's Expedition Across the Continent, 1804–1806." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. January–March 1898.

Moring, J. R. "Fish Discoveries by the Lewis and Clark and Red River Expeditions." Fisheries 21 (July 1996): 6–12.

Nickerson, Roy. Sea Otters: A Natural History and Guide. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1989.

Osgood, Ernest Staples. "A Prairie Dog for Mr. Jefferson." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 19, no. 2 (1969): 54–56.

Phillips, H. Wayne. Plants of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press Publishing, 2003.

Quinn, C. Edward. "A Zoologist's View of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." American Zoologist 26 (1986): 299–306.

Reid, Russell, and Clell G. Gannon. "Birds and Mammals Observed by Lewis & Clark in North Dakota." North Dakota History 66, no. 2 (1999): 2–14. Jamestown, N.Dak.: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. Also available on-line URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/2000/bmam/bmam.htm. Downloaded on May 20, 2001.

Rossi, Linda, and Alfred E. Schuyler. "The Iconography of Plants Collected on the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Great Plains Research 3, no. 1 (1993): 39–60.

Schafer, Shaun. "Prairie Fires Designed to Help Nature." IMDiversity Daily News, Associated Press. Available on-line. URL: http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=6612. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

Schullery, Paul. Lewis and Clark Among the Grizzlies: Legend and Legacy in the American West. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 2002.

Setzer, Henry W. "Zoological Contributions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 44 (November 1954).

Tobin-Schlesinger, Kathleen. "Jefferson to Lewis: The Study of Nature in the West." Journal of the West 29, no. 1 (1990): 54–61.

Van Wormer, Joe. The World of the Pronghorn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1969.

Walcheck, K. C. "Birds Observed by Lewis and Clark in Montana, 1805– 06." Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Science 29: 13–29.

Wilkinson, Todd, and Paul Rauber. "Lewis & Clark's America: The Corps of Discovery Left Us a Blueprint for a Wild West." Sierra (May/June 2002): 42–46.

Wilson, Alexander. Birds of America. 9 vols. Philadelphia: Bradford & Innskeep, 1808–14.

Wilson, Alexander, and Charles Lucien Bonaparte. American Ornithology; or The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Edited by Robert Jameson. Edinburgh: Constable & Co., 1831.

Geography and Mapping

Allen, John Logan. "Geographical Knowledge and American Images of the Louisiana Territory." Western Historical Quarterly 2 (April 1971).

———. Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1991.

American Rivers. "The Rivers of Lewis and Clark." Available on-line. URL: http://www.americanrivers.org/lewisclark/default.htm. Downloaded on February 10, 2002.

Botkin, Daniel B. Passage of Discovery: The American Rivers Guide to the Missouri of Lewis and Clark. New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1999.

Clawson, Roger. Pompeys Pillar: Crossroads of the Frontier. Billings, Mont.: The Prose Works, 1992.

Dietrich, William. Northwest Passage: The Great Columbia River. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.

Dryden, Cecil. The Clearwater of Idaho. New York: Carlton Press, 1972.

Ehrenberg, Ralph. "Mapping on the Trail." Route Mapping on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_on_trail.html. Downloaded on March 1, 2002.

Ellet, Charles. The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. New York: Arno Press, 1970.

Furdell, William J., and Elizabeth Lane Furdell. Great Falls: A Pictorial History. Norfolk, Va.: Donning Co., 1987.

Harris, Stephen L. Fire and Ice: The Cascade Volcanoes. Revised ed. Seattle: The Mountaineers, Pacific Search Press, 1980.

Hawke, David Freeman. "William Clark and the Mapping of the West." Gateway Heritage 10, no. 3 (1989–90): 4–13.

Heidenreich, C. Adrian. "The Native Americans' Yellowstone." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35 (Autumn 1985): 56–67.

Hulbert, Archer Butler. Waterways of Western Expansion: The Ohio River and Its Tributaries. New York: AMS Press, 1971.

Johnsgard, Paul A. The Platte: Channels in Time. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Lang, William L., and Robert C. Carriker, eds. Great River of the West: Essays on the Columbia River. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Larson, Ron. Upper Mississippi River History: Fact, Fiction, Legend. Revised ed. Winona, Minn.: Steamboat Press, 1998.

Lower, J. Arthur. Ocean of Destiny: A Concise History of the North Pacific, 1500–1978. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1978.

Moulton, Gary E., ed. Atlas of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Revised ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Mussulman, Joseph. "Pompy's Tower." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/POMPSTOWER/yr_pomp-remarkable.htm. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

National Geographic Atlas of Natural America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2000.

National Park Service. "Knife River Indian Villages: National Historic Site." Available on-line. URL: http://www.nps.gov/knri/overview.htm. Downloaded on April 14, 2002.

Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. "Pacific Ocean." Available on-line. URL: http://oceanographer.navy.mil/pacific.html. Updated on May 30, 2001.

Newby, Rick. "The Yellowstone River." From Discovering Lewis and Clark: Clark on the Yellowstone. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewis-clark.org/CLARK-YELLOWSTONE/YELLOWSTONE/yr_submenu.htm. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

Nicandri, David, and Gary Lentz. "Lewis & Clark and the Mountain of Mystery." Washington State Historical Society. Available on-line. URL: http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/mountain-of-mystery.htm. Downloaded on July 12, 2002.

Peterson, Nick. "Umatilla County's Hat Rock a significant site on Lewis and Clark's route." East Oregonian. Available on-line. URL: http://www.eastoregonian.com/stories/99/apr/01/story1.html. Posted on April 1, 1999.

Reid, Robert L. Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Saindon, Bob. "The River Which Scolds at all Others: An Obstinate Blunder in Nomenclature." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 26, no. 3 (1976): 2–7.

Salter, Cathy Riggs. "Lewis and Clark's Lost Missouri: A Mapmaker Re-creates the River of 1804 and Changes the Course of History." National Geographic 201, no. 4 (April 2002): 89–97.

Schwantes, Carlos A. Columbia River: Gateway to the West. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 2000.

Space, Ralph S. The Clearwater Story: A History of the Clearwater National Forest. Missoula, Mont.: Forest Service, ISDA; Orofino, Idaho: Clearwater Historical Society, 1980.

USDA Forest Service. "Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest Southwest Montana: Lemhi Pass National Historic Landmark." Available on-line. URL: http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/bdnf/virtualtours/lemhi-pass/virtual-lemhi-pass.html. Downloaded on May 20, 2001.

———. "Clearwater National Forest, Idaho." URL: http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/clearwater/. Updated on February 27, 2002.

Vestal, Stanley. The Missouri. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.

Wood, W. Raymond. "The John Evans 1796–97 Map of the Missouri River." Great Plains Quarterly 1 (1981): 39–53.

———. "William Clark's Mapping in Missouri, 1803–1804." Missouri Historical Review 76, no. 3 (1982): 241–251.

Wood, W. Raymond, and Gary E. Moulton. "Prince Maximilian and New Maps of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers by William Clark." Western Historical Quarterly 12 (1981): 372–386.

Cities and Towns

Baldwin, Leland D. Pittsburgh: The Story of a City, 1750–1865. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1970.

Billon, Frederic. Annals of St. Louis in Its Early Days under the French and Spanish dominations, 1764–1804. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1971.

Cutright, Paul Russell. Contributions of Philadelphia to Lewis and Clark History. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Chapter Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, 2001. Also available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisandclarkphila.org/philadelphia/philadelphiacutrightconten.html. Updated on October 15, 2001.

Foley, William. "St. Louis: The First Hundred Years." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 34, no. 4, Pt. 1 (July 1978).

Lorant, Stefan. Pittsburgh: The Story of an American City. 5th ed. With contributions by Henry Steele Commager et al. Pittsburgh: Esselmont Books, 1999.

Muhly, Frank. "Firm Foundations in Philadelphia: The Lewis and Clark Expedition's Ties to Philadelphia." Lewis and Clark Heritage Trail Foundation, Philadelphia Chapter. Available on-line. URL: http://www.lewisandclarkphila.org/philadelphia/philadelphiafrankmuhly.html. Downloaded on February 7, 2002.

Taylor, Troy. "Curse of Kaskaskia: The Strange Fate of the First State Capitol of Illinois." History and Hauntings of Illinois. Available on-line. URL: http://www.prairieghosts.com/kaskaskia.html. Downloaded on April 5, 2002.

Town of Clarksville, Indiana. "Clarksville History." Available on-line. URL: http://town.clarksville.in.us/home/history.html. Downloaded on February 13, 2002.

Fur Trade, Traders, and Trappers

Alwin, John A. "Pelts, Provisions, and Perceptions: The Hudson's Bay Company Mandan Indian Trade, 1795–1815." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 29 (1979): 16–27.

Bryce, George. The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company, Including That of the French Traders of North-western Canada, and of the North-west, XY, and Astor Fur Companies. 2d ed. New York: B. Franklin, 1968.

Davidson, Gordon Charles. The North West Company. New York: Russell & Russell, 1967.

Foley, William E. "The Lewis and Clark Expedition's Silent Partners: The Chouteau Brothers of St. Louis." Missouri Historical Review 77, no. 2 (1983): 131–146.

Irving, Washington. Astoria: or, Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains. 1836, Reprint edited by Edgeley W. Todd. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

MacKay, Douglas. The Honourable Company: A History of the Hudson's Bay Company. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

Maguire, James H., Peter Wild, and Donald A. Barclay, eds. A Rendezvous Reader: Tall, Tangled, and True Tales of the Mountain Men, 1805–1850. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997.

Newman, Peter C. Caesars of the Wilderness. Markham, Ontario: Viking, 1987.

Oglesby, Richard E. Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

O'Meara, Walter. The Savage Country. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.

Rich, E. E. The Fur Trade and the Northwest to 1857. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1967.

Scofield, John. Hail, Columbia: Robert Gray, John Kendrick and the American Fur Trade. Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1993.

Wood, W. Raymond, and Thomas D. Thiessen. Early Fur Trade on the Northern Plains: Canadian Traders Among the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians, 1738–1818. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Exploration (Other than Lewis and Clark)

American Philosophical Society. "Treasures of the APS: Jefferson Proposes a Scientific Expedition." Available on-line. URL: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/treasures/michaux.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Anderson, Bern. Life and Voyages of Captain George Vancouver, Surveyor of the Sea. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966.

Avalon Project at the Yale Law School. "Jefferson's Letter to George Rogers Clark." Available on-line. URL: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/jefflett/let21.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Barclay, Donald A., James H. Maguire, and Peter Wild, eds. Into the Wilderness Dream: Exploration Narratives of the American West, 1500–1805. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994.

Brebner, John B. The Explorers of North America 1492–1806. New York: Macmillan, 1933.

Canadian Arctic Profiles. "Exploration of the Northwest Passage." Arctic Canada, Vol. 1, 3d ed., 1982. Available on-line. URL: http://collections.ic.gc.ca/arctic/explore/intro.htm. Downloaded on January 25, 2002.

Carver, Jonathan. The Journals of Jonathan Carver and Related Documents, 1766–1770. Edited by John Parker. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Press, 1976.

Coalwell, Christine. "Jefferson's Library: Exploring the Americas at Monticello." From The Author of Our Enterprise: Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/libraryofamerica.html. Downloaded on January 21, 2002.

Coues, Elliott, ed. The Explorations of Zebulon Montgomery Pike. 3 vols. New York: Harper, 1895.

Daniells, Roy. Alexander Mackenzie and the North West. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Delgado, James P. Across the Top of the World: The Quest for the Northwest Passage. New York: Checkmark Books, 1999.

Flores, Dan K. "Red River Expedition." Handbook of Texas Online. Available on-line. URL: http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/on-line/articles/view/RR/upr2.html. Downloaded on February 6, 2002.

———, ed. Jefferson and Southwestern Exploration: The Freeman and Custis Accounts of the Red River Expedition of 1806. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

Goetzmann, William. Army Exploration in the American West. 2d ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

———. Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966.

Hart, Stephen Harding, and Archer Butler Hulbert, eds. Zebulon Pike's Arkansaw Journal: In Search of the Southern Louisiana Purchase Boundary Line (interpreted by his newly recovered maps). Edited, with bibliographical resumé, 1800–1810. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

Haycox, Stephen W., et al. Enlightenment and Exploration in the North Pacific 1741–1805. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.

The Illustrated Lower Columbia Handbook. "Exploration." Available on-line. URL: http://www.lowercolumbiahandbook.com/explorers.cfm. Downloaded on March 25, 2002.

Jackson, Donald. Thomas Jefferson & the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Jefferson, Thomas. Message from the President of the United States Communicating Discoveries Made in Exploring the Missouri, Red River and Washita, by Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, and Mr. Dunbar: with a statistical account of the countries adjacent. Washington, D.C.: A. & G. Way, printers, 1806.

Large, Arlen. "Vancouver's Legacy to Lewis and Clark." We Proceeded On 18, no. 1 (1992).

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander. Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in 1789 and 1793, with an Account of the Rise and State of the Fur Trade. 2 vols.; Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Maritime Museum of British Columbia. "European Exploration on the Northwest Coast." Available on-line. URL: http://mmbc.bc.ca/source/schoolnet/exploration/ee_nwc.html. Downloaded on April 10, 2002.

Moring, John. Men with Sand: Great Explorers of the North American West. Helena, Mont.: Twodot Books, 1998.

Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada. Available on-line. URL: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/2/24/index-e.html. Updated on December 7, 2001.

Pethick, Derek. First Approaches to the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1976.

Powell, John Wesley. The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons. Reprint, Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Books, 2002.

Pugh, Ellen. Brave His Soul: The Story of Prince Madog of Wales and His Discovery of America in 1170. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1970.

Rollins, Philip Ashton, ed. The Discovery of the Oregon Trail: Robert Stuart's Narratives of His Overland Trip Eastward from Astoria in 1812–13. New York: Edward Eberstadt, 1935.

Schwantes, Carlos, ed. Encounters with a Distant Land: Exploration and the Great Northwest. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1994.

Tabeau, Pierre-Antoine. Tabeau's Narrative of Loisel's Expedition to the Upper Missouri. Edited by Annie Heloise Abel. Translated by Rose Abel Wright. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939.

Thompson, David. Columbia Journals. Edited by Barbara Belyea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998.

———. Travels in Western North America, 1784–1812. Edited by Victor G. Hopwood. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1971.

University of Virginia. "Exploring the West from Monticello." Available on-line. URL: http://www.lib.virginia.edu/exhibits/lewis_clark/home.html. Downloaded on March 27, 2002.

Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791–1795. New York: Da Capo Press, 1968.

Walker, Dale. Pacific Destiny: The Three Century Journey to Oregon Country. New York: Forge Books, 2000.

Wilson, Gaye. "The American Philosophical Society and Western Exploration." From Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/aps.html. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

———. "Jefferson's Long Look West." From Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Available on-line. URL: http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/l&c_essay.html. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Wood, W. Raymond. Prologue to Lewis & Clark: The Mackay and Evans Expedition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

Zimmerman, Emily. "The Mountain Men: Pathfinders of the West." University of Virginia American Studies Project. Available on-line. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/HNS/Mtmen/home.html. Downloaded on March 14, 2002.

History and Expansion

Aldrich, John. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Avalon Project at the Yale Law School. "The Louisiana Purchase, 1803 and Associated Documents." Available on-line. URL: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/france/fr1803m.htm. Updated on February 1, 2002.

Billington, Ray Allen, and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. 6th ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001.

Brigham, David R. Public Culture in the Early Republic: Peale's Museum and Its Audience. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.

Colorado Migration Project. "Westward Expansion." Available on-line. URL: http://www.americanwest.com/pages/wexpansi.htm. Downloaded on May 24, 2001.

DeConde, Alexander. This Affair of Louisiana. New York: Charles Scribner, 1976.

DiLeo, Juliet, et al. "Government and the Louisiana Territory." Available on-line. URL: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~lschwarz/finalhome.html. Downloaded on March 3, 2002.

Dunbar, William. Documents Relating to the Purchase and Exploration of Louisiana. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904.

Fanning, Susan. "Keelboats Once King of River." American Local History Network. Available on-line. URL: http://www.usgennet.org/usa/wi/county/eauclaire/history/ourstory/vol3/keelboats.html. Updated on April 27, 2000.

Frontier Heritage Alliance. "Travel the Bozeman Trail." (Includes history of the trail and pass.) Available on-line. URL: http://www.bozemantrail.org/index.htm. Downloaded on January 10, 2002.

Hebard, Grace Raymond, and E. A. Brininstool. The Bozeman Trail: Historical Accounts of the Blazing of the Overland Routes in the Northwest, and the Fights with Red Cloud's Warriors. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Hitchcock, Ripley. The Louisiana Purchase & the Exploration Early History and Building of the West. Reprint, Scituate, Mass: Digital Scanning, Inc., 2001. Also available on-line. URL: http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/history/louis/cover.htm. Downloaded on March 13, 2002.

Horsman, Reginald. Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783–1812. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1967.

Hudson, Mary A. "Amos Stoddard and the Territory of Missouri." From The Heritage of Missouri. Available on-line. URL: http://www.rootsweb.com/~mostodd2/stod-settlers/amos-stod.htm. Downloaded on March 3, 2002.

Illinois Department of Natural Resources. "Fort Massac History: Chronology." Available on-line. URL: http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/landmgt/PARKS/R5/from_history.htm. Downloaded on January 26, 2002.

Kawashime, Yasuhide. "Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations in the Early American Frontier." The American Indian Quarterly 13, no. 1 (winter 1989): 1–14.

Keogh, Xavier F. "The American Federal Interpreter and How the West Was Won." Proteus VII: 3 (summer 1998). Available on-line. URL: http://www.najit.org/proteus/keogh.html. Downloaded on May 23, 2001.

Kimberly, Howard. "Madoc: Were the Welsh the First European Americans?" Madoc 1170 website. Available on-line. URL: http://www.madoc1170.com/home.htm. Updated on February 7, 2001.

Kukla, Jon. A Wilderness So Immense: The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America. New York: A. A. Knopf, 2003.

Marshall, Thomas Maitland. A History of the Western Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, 1819–1841. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1914.

Mattes, Merrill J. The Great Platte River Road: The Covered Wagon Mainline via Fort Kearney to Fort Laramie. Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1969.

Montgomery, M. R. Jefferson and the Gun-Men: How the West Was almost Lost. New York: Crown Publishers, 2000.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Oxford History of the American People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Nasatir, A. P., ed. Before Lewis and Clark: Documents Illustrating the History of the Missouri, 1785–1804. 2 vols. St. Louis: St. Louis Historical Documents Foundation, 1975.

Nichols, Roger L. "The Army and Early Perceptions of the Plains." Nebraska History 56, no. 1 (1975): 121–135.

Oregon Blue Book. "Oregon History–Columbia Plateau." Available on-line: URL: http://bluebook.state.or.us/cultural/history/history03.htm. Downloaded on April 4, 2002.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Indian Peace Medals in American History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Louisiana Purchase: A Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2002.

Ronda, James P. Thomas Jefferson and the Changing West. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1997.

Ross, Alexander. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. 1849. Reprint edited by Milo M. Quaife. Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1922.

Shoemaker, Floyd. "The Louisiana Purchase, 1803." Missouri Historical Review 48 (October 1953).

Stoddard, Amos. Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana. 1812. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Thwaites, Reuben G. How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest and Other Essays in Western History. New York: Arno Press, 1978.

Trinklein, Mike, and Steve Boettcher. "The Oregon Trail." Available on-line. URL: http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Oregontrail.html. Downloaded on January 15, 2002.

Utley, Robert M. A Life Wild and Perilous: Mountain Men and the Paths to the Pacific. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1997.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Miscellaneous

Carvalho, David N. Forty Centuries of Ink. New York: B. Franklin, 1971.

Fussell, Betty. The Story of Corn. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Gottfried, J. "The Well-Dressed Explorer." Available on-line. URL: http://www.northwestjournal.ca/sample.html. Downloaded on February 28, 2002.

History of Paper. Available on-line. URL: http://www.mead.com/ml/docs/facts/history.html. Downloaded on April 14, 2002.

Leepson, Marc. Saving Monticello: The Levy Family's Epic Quest to Rescue the House that Jefferson Built. New York: Free Press, 2001.

Licht, Daniel S. Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Nova Online. "Lost Tribes of Israel." PBS Companion Website. Available on-line. URL: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/israel/. Created February 2000; downloaded on February 20, 2002.

Russell, Carl P. Firearms, Traps & Tools of the Mountain Men. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1977.

Snow, Jan. "Lewis and Clark in the Museum Collections of the Missouri Historical Society." Gateway Heritage 2, no. 2 (1981): 36–41.

Wheelock, Mary E. Paper: Its History and Development. Chicago: American Library Association, 1928.

Recommended Websites

There are thousands of websites devoted to Lewis and Clark. The following are among the best. See also individual on-line articles in the bibliography above.

Bibliography of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Compiled and Annotated by Lance Gillette)

http://www.olypen.com/gillde/lance/bibliographies/lewis.htm#Primary

Discovering Lewis and Clark

http://www.lewis-clark.org/

Exploring the West from Monticello (University of Virginia)

http://www.lib.virginia.edu/exhibits/lewis_clark/home.html

The Journals of Lewis and Clark (University of Virginia)

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/JOURNALS/toc.html

The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (University of Nebraska Press, Center for Great Plains Studies, UNL Libraries Electronic Text Center)

http://lewis and clarkjournals.unl.edu/

Lewis and Clark in North Dakota (Senator Byron Dorgan)

http://dorgan.senate.gov/lewis_and_clark/contents.html

The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery (Jefferson National Expansion Memorial; National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior)

http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/HomePage/HomePage.htm

Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery (PBS On-line)

http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/index.html.

Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail (National Park Service)

http://www.nps.gov/lecl/

Lewis and Clark on the Information Superhighway (Compiled by Jay Rasmussen)

http://www.lcarchive.org/index.html

The Lewis and Clark Trail

http://lewisandclarktrail.com/index.html

Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, Inc.

http://www.lewisandclark.org/index.htm

Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation—Philadelphia Chapter

http://www.lewisandclarkphila.org/

National Geographic.com: Lewis & Clark website.

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark.

On the Trail: Lewis and Clark in Montana

http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/discovery.shtm

Pacific County Friends of Lewis and Clark website.

http://www.lewisandclarkwa.com/pages/home.html

U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management: Idaho. Lewis and Clark Historical Articles:

http://www.id.blm.gov/lc/index.htm

Washington State Historical Society: Lewis and Clark website.

http://www.wshs.org/lewisandclark/index.htm


Back to Top

Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 1

Adorno, Rolena, and Pautz, Patrick Charles. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: His Account, His Life, and the Expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez. 3 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Ajayi, J. F. Ade, and Crowder, Michael, eds. History of West Africa. 3rd ed. London: Longman, 1985.

Appiah, Kwame Anthony, and Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999.

Bethell, Leslie, ed. Colonial Brazil. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Boxer, C.R. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415–1825. New York: Knopf: 1969.

Braudel, Fernand. The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. 3 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.

Braudel, Fernand, and Mollat du Jourdin, Michel, eds. Le Monde de Jacques Cartier. Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1984.

Clendinnen, Inga. Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1517–1570. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

———. Aztecs: An Interpretation. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Coe, Michael. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. 4th ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 1994.

Cook, Noble David. Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Cortés, Hernán. Letters from Mexico, trans. Anthony Pagden. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Davidson, Basil. West Africa before the Colonial Era: A History to 1850. London: Longman, 1998.

Doggett, Rachel, ed. New World of Wonders: European Images of the Americas, 1492–1700. Washington, D.C.: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1992.

Durán, Diego. The History of the Indies of New Spain, trans. Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Elliott, J. H. The Old World and the New, 1492–1650. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

———. Spain and Its World, 1500–1700. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Farriss, Nancy M. Maya Society Under Colonial Rule: The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Columbus. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Flint, Valerie. The Imaginary Landscape of Christopher Columbus. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Fuentes, Patricia de. The Conquistadors: First Person Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Galloway, Patricia. Choctaw Genesis, 1500–1700. Lincoln.: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Grafton, Anthony. New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.

———. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians, 1500–1760. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Henderson, John S. The World of the Ancient Maya, 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997

Hillerbrand, Hans J., ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hulme, Peter. Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492–1797. London: Methuen, 1986.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. America in 1492: The World of the Indian Peoples Before the Arrival of Columbus. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indians: A Comprehensive Account. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Kenseth, Joy, ed. The Age of the Marvelous. Hanover, N.H.: Hood Museum of Art/Dartmouth College, 1991.

Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of Exploration, 1492–1600. New York: Facts On File, 2000.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl, ed., America in European Consciousness, 1493–1750. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

———. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000.

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 2

Alexander, James A. A Brief Narrative of the Case and Trial of John Peter Zenger. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 3

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Alfred A, Knopf, 2000.

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———. The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977.

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———. The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness and the Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

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———. Statehood and Union: A History of the Northwest Ordinance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 4

Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Aron, Stephen. How the West Was Lost: The Transformation of Kentucky from Daniel Boone to Henry Clay. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 5

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 6

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 7

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 8

Adams, Michael C. C. The Best War Ever: America and World War II. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 9

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———, Exploring the Johnson Years. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

———. The Johnson Years, Volume Two: Vietnam, the Environment, and Science. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1987.

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Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: William Morrow, 1986.

Giglio, James N. The Presidency of John F. Kennedy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

———. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Grant, Joanne. Ella Baker: Freedom Bound. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1998.

Greenstein, Fred I. The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Villard Books, 1993.

Hamby, Alonzo L. Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Harrington, Michael. The Other America: Poverty in the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1962.

Hartmann, Susan M. The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982.

———. The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.

Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.

Hays, Samuel P. Beauty, Health, and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955–1985. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975. 3d ed. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 1995.

———. LBJ and Vietnam: A Different Kind of War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Hine, Darlene Clark, and Kathleen Thompson. A Shining Thread of Hope: The History of Black Women in America. New York: Broadway Books, 1998.

Hogan, Michael J. A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

———. The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Horowitz, Daniel. Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique: The American Left, the Cold War and Modern Feminism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.

Hoxie, Frederick E., ed. Indians in American History. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1988.

Iverson, Peter. "We Are Still Here": American Indians in the Twentieth Century. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

Isserman, Maurice, and Michael Kazin. America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Jones, Jacqueline. The Dispossessed: America's Underclasses from the Civil War to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

———. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

Kaledin, Eugenia. Mothers and More: American Women in the 1950s. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984.

Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History: The First Complete Account of Vietnam at War. New York: Viking Press, 1983.

Kaufman, Burton I. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.

Kelley, Robin D. G., and Earl Lewis, eds. To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kimball, Jeffrey P. Nixon's Vietnam War. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1996. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.

———. Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. 2d ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1993.

Leffler, Melvyn P. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Lewis, John, with Michael D'Ors. Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Linden-Ward, Blanche. Changing the Future: American Women in the 1960s. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993.

Malcolm X, with Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove Press, 1965.

Matusow, Allen J. The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. New York: Basic Books, 1998.

May, Ernest R., and Philip D. Zelikow, eds. The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.

McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Meyerowitz, Joanne, ed. Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945–1960. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Murray, Charles. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980. 10th anniv. ed. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Oshinsky, David M. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. New York: The Free Press, 1983.

Pach, Chester J., Jr., and Elmo Richardson. The Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Parmet, Herbert S. Jack: The Struggles of John F. Kennedy. New York: Dial Press, 1980.

———. JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy. New York: Dial Press, 1983.

Patterson, James T. America's Struggle against Poverty in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Patterson, Thomas G. Meeting the Communist Threat: Truman to Reagan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Perlstein, Rick. Before the Story: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus. New York: Hill & Wang, 2001.

Piven, Frances F., and Richard A. Cloward. Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Polenberg, Richard. One Nation Divisible: Class, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States since 1938. New York: Viking Press, 1980.

Powaski, Ronald A. The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917–1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Radosh, Ronald, and Joyee Milton. The Rosenberg File: A Search for Truth. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1983.

Rampersad, Arnold. Jackie Robinson: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997.

Reeves, Richard. President Kennedy: Profile of Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Reeves, Thomas C. The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. New York: Stein & Day, 1982.

Rose, Lisle A. The Cold War Comes to Main Street: America in 1950. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Green Revolution: The American Environmental Movement, 1962–1992. New York: Hill & Wang, 1993.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.

Schor, Juliet B. The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Schrecker, Ellen W. No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Sheehan, Neil. A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam. New York: Random House, 1988.

Sitkoff, Harvard. The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954–1992. Rev. ed. New York: Hill & Wang, 1993.

Sorensen, Theodore C. Kennedy. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.

Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Weinstein, Allen. Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case. Rev. ed. New York: Random House, 1997.

Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev. The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America: The Stalin Era. New York: Random House, 1999.

Winkler, Allan M. The Cold War: A History in Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

———. Life under a Cloud: American Anxiety about the Atom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Zieger, Robert H. American Workers, American Unions. 2d ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.


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Encyclopedia of American History, Vol. 10

Abbott, Carl. The New Urban America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Allen, Walter, and Reynolds Farley. The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America. New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 1987.

Ambrose, Stephen. Nixon: Ruin and Recovery, 1973–1990. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Anderson, Paul. Janet Reno: Doing the Right Thing. New York: Wiley, 1994.

Arblaster, A. The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Archer, Michael. Art since 1960. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1997.

Balmer, Randall. Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Journey into the Evangelical Subculture of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Barnouw, Erik. The Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television. New York: Oxford University Press: 1990.

Barone, Michael. Our Country: America from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Barrett, David. World Christian Encyclopedia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Baughman, James L. The Republic of Mass Culture: Journalism, Filmmaking, and Broadcasting in America since 1941. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Berkowitz, Edward. America's Welfare State: From Roosevelt to Reagan. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Berman, Harold. Faith and Order: The Reconciliation of Law and Religion. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1993.

Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward. All the President's Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974.

Bibby, John F. Two Parties—Or More?: The American Party System. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

Brisbin, Richard. Justice Antonin Scalia and the Conservative Revival. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Broder, David, and Bob Woodward. The Man Who Would Be President: Dan Quayle. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Brooks, Tim, and Earle Marsh. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows: 1946-Present, 3rd ed. New York: Ballantine Books, 1985.

Cairncross, Frances. Costing the Earth: The Challenge for Governments, The Opportunities for Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1991.

Cameron, Charles M. Veto Bargaining: Presidents and the Politics of Negative Power. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Carter, Dan. The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Clancy, Paul, and Shirley Elder. Tip: A Biography of Thomas P. O'Neill, Speaker of the House. New York: Macmillan, 1980.

Cockcroft, James. Latin America—History, Politics, and U.S. Policy, 2d ed. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1996.

Cohodas, Nadine. Strom Thurmond and the Politics of Southern Change. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Congressional Quarterly. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Critchlow, Donald T. Intended Consequences: Birth Control, Abortion, and the Federal Government in Modern America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

———. The Politics of Abortion and Birth Control in Historical Perspective. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State Press, 1996.

Daniels, Roger. Asian Americans: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

D'Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America, 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Derr, Mary Krane, ed. Pro-Life Feminism. New York: Sulzburger & Graham, 1995.

Derrida, Jacques. Speech and Phenomena, and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs. Translated by David B. Allison. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1973.

Duffy, John. From Humors to Medical Sciences: A History of American Medicine. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Dunkley, Graham. The Free Trade Adventure: The WTO, the Uruguay Round and Globalism—a Critique. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Echols, Alice. Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Edwards, Lee. The Power of Idea: The Heritage Foundation at 25 Years. Ottawa, Ill.: Jameson Books, 1997.

Elving, Ronald D., ed. Congress and the Great Issues, 1945–1995. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1996.

Felsenthal, Carol. The Sweetheart of the Silent Majority: The Biography of Phyllis Schlafly. New York: Doubleday, 1981.

Flowers, Charles. A Science Odyssey: 100 Years of Discovery. New York: Morrow, 1998.

Follett, Ken. On Wings of Eagles. New York: Morrow, 1983.

Freeman, Jo. Women: A Feminist Perspective. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Garrow, David. Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of "Roe v. Wade." New York: Macmillan, 1994.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., and Cornel West. The African American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Country. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Genovese, Michael A. The Watergate Crisis. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. First Principles: The Jurisprudence of Clarence Thomas. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Goldberg, Bernard. Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publisher, 2002.

Goodrum, C., and H. Dalrymple. Advertising in America: The First 200 Years. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990.

Gorn, Elliot J., and Warren Goldstein. A Brief History of American Sports. New York: Hill & Wang, 1993.

Guttman, Allen. From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Hadden, J. K., and A. D. Shupe. Televangelism. New York: H. Holt, 1988.

Hall, Kermit, ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hammond, Paul Y. Cold War and Detente: The American Foreign Policy Process since 1945. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.

Hawkins, Gordon. Pornography in a Free Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Hayward, Steven. The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order, 1964–1980. Roseville, Calif.: Forum/Prima, 2001.

Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

Hunter, James D. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Hutchinson, Dennis J. The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Irogbe, Kema. The Roots of United States Foreign Policy toward Apartheid South Africa, 1969–1985. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1997.

Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University.

Jacobs, Ron. The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground. New York: Verso, 1997.

Jennings, Francis. The Founders of America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.

Jewell, Malcolm E., and Sarah M. Morehouse. Political Parties and Elections in American States. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2000.

Kammen, Michael. American Culture American Tastes: Social Change and the 20th Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.

Kessler, David A. A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly Industry. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

Kinder, Donald. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Kohn, Richard H. Military Laws of the United States from the Civil War through the War Powers Act of 1973. New York: Arno Press, 1979.

Kutler, Stanley I. The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1990.

Kyvig, David E. Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the Constitution, 1776–1995. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Laumanny, Edward O. et. al. The Social Organization of Sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Lawson, Steven. Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America since 1941. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Levin, Doron P. Irreconcilable Differences: Ross Perot vs. General Motors. Boston: Little Brown, 1989.

Long, Robert Emmet, ed. Religious Cults in America. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1994.

Luck, Edward C. Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919–1999. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990.

Maisel, Sandy L. Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Marty, Martin. Modern American Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

McCloskey, Robert G. The American Supreme Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Meltz, Robert. The Takings Issue: Constitutional Limits on Land-Use, Control and Environmental Regulation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999.

Meyer, M. A. Response to Modernity: A History of the Reform Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Mielke, Arthur J. Christians, Feminists, and the Culture of Pornography. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1995.

Mintz, Steven, and Susan Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York: Free Press, 1988.

Muller, Thomas. Immigrants and the American City. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

Nash, George H. The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America since 1945. New York: Basic Books, 1976.

Newhouse, John. Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon/Brassey, 1989.

Novas, Himilce. Everything You Need to Know about Latino History. New York: Plume, 1994.

Olasky, Marvin. Abortion Rites: A History of Abortion in America. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1992.

O'Neill, Thomas P., with William Novak. Man of the House; The Life and Political Memoirs of Speaker Tip O'Neill. New York: Random House, 1987.

Posner, Gerald. Citizen Perot: His Life and Times. New York: Random House, 1996.

Posner, Richard. An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Powaski, Ronald E. Return to Armageddon: The United States and the Nuclear Arms Race, 1981–1999. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Quayle, Dan. Standing Firm: A Vice-Presidential Memoir. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.

Ravitch, Diane. The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945–1980. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court. New York: Alfred Knopf, 2001.

Reiss, Edward. The Strategic Defense Initiative. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Ricci, David. The Transformation of American Politics: The New Washington and the Rise of Think Tanks. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Robbins, William G., and James C. Foster, eds. Land in the American West. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Rodman, Peter. More Precious Than Peace: The Cold War and the Struggle for the Third World. New York: Scribners, 1994.

Rosenberg, Roslind. Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. New York: Hill & Wang, 1992.

Rudenstine, David. The Day the Presses Stopped: A History of the Pentagon Papers Case. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Rusk, Dean. As I Saw It. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.

Savage, David. Turning Right: The Making of the Rehnquist Supreme Court. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1992.

Schippers, David, with Alan Henry. Sellout. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2000.

Singer, Edward Nathan. 20th Century Revolutions in Technology. Boston, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1998.

Skidmore, Thomas, and H. Wayne Smith. Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

Smith, James Allen. The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the New Policy Elite. New York: Free Press, 1991.

Sniderman, Paul, and Edward Carmines. Reaching beyond Race. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Sobel, Robert. Dangerous Dreamers: The Financial Innovators from Charles Merrill to Michael Milken. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.

Sullivan, Shannon. "New Philosophical Directions," In Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. Volume 3. Edited by Mary Kupiec Cayton and Peter W. Williams. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Strobe, Talbott. Endgame: The Inside Story of SALT II. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Thomas, A.M. The American Predicament: Apartheid and United States Foreign Policy. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1997.

Thomas, Andrew Peyton. Clarence Thomas: A Biography. San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books, 2001.

Ullman, Sharon. Sex Seen: The Emergence of Modern Sexuality in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Urofsky, Melvin, ed. The Supreme Court Justices. New York: Garland, 1994.

Wallis, Rodney. Lockerbie: The Story and the Lessons. Westport, Conn.: 2001.

Ware, Alan. Citizens, Parties and the State: A Reappraisal. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Watson, Mary Ann. Defining Visions: Television and the American Experience since 1945. Fort Worth, Tex.: Harcourt Brace, 1998.

Weinstein, B. L., and R. E. Firestine. Regional Growth and Decline in the United States: The Rise of the Sunbelt and the Decline of the Northeast. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1978.

Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience: A Concise History. New York, McGraw, 2002.

Wright, Jim. Balance of Power. Atlanta, Ga.: Turner Publishing, 1996.

Wright, Russell O. A Twentieth Century History of the United States Population. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996.

Wuthnow, Robert. Christianity in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Yarnold, Barbara. Abortion Politics in the Federal Courts. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.

Zeiler, Thomas W. Dean Rusk: Defending the American Mission Abroad. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2000.


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American Biographies: American Inventors, Entrepreneurs, and Business Visionaries

Aaseng, Nathan. Black Inventors. New York: Facts On File, 1997.

———. Business Builders in Computers. Minneapolis: Oliver Press, 2000.

———. Business Builders in Fast Food. Minneapolis: Oliver Press, 2001.

———. Business Builders in Oil. Minneapolis: Oliver Press, 2000.

———. Business Builders in Real Estate. Minneapolis: Oliver Press, 2001.

———. Twentieth–Century Inventors. New York: Facts On File, 1991.

Abbott, David. The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Engineers and Inventors. New York: P. Bedrick Books, 1986.

Bowman, John S. The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Brands, H. W. Masters of Enterprise: Giants of American Business from John Jacob Astor and J. P. Morgan to Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey. New York: Free Press, 1999.

Brown, Kenneth A. Inventors at Work: Interviews with 16 Notable American Inventors. Redmond, Wash.: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press, 1988.

Concise Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner; Simon & Schuster and Prentice Hall International, 1997.

Contemporary Black Biography, Profiles from the International Black Community. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001.

Current Biography. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1940– .

Day, Lance, and Ian McNeil, eds. Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Lawrence, Kans.: Routledge, 1998.

Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996.

Dow, Sheila M., ed. Business Leader Profiles for Students. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1998.

Garraty, John A., and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Hallett, Anthony, and Diana Hallett. Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.

Hamilton, Neil A. American Business Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC–Clio, 2001.

Haskins, James. African American Entrepreneurs. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1998.

Hooper, Roger B. Who's Who of American Inventors. Baton Rouge, La.: Hooper Group Publishing, 1990.

Iles, George. Leading American Inventors. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1968.

Ingham, John N. Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983.

James, Edward T., and Janet Wilson James. Notable American Women, 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1971.

Jeffrey, Laura S. American Inventors of the 20th Century. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow, 1996.

Logan, Rayford W., and Michael R. Winston. Dictionary of American Negro Biography. New York: Norton, 1982.

McCluskey, Krista. Entrepreneurs. New York: Crabtree, 1999.

National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, N.J.: James T. White, 1984.

Oppedisano, Jeannette M. Historical Encyclopedia of American Women Entrepreneurs: 1776 to the Present. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Pilato, Denise E. The Retrieval of a Legacy: Nineteenth–Century American Women Inventors. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.

Sicherman, Barbara, and Carol Hurd Green. Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1980.

Smith, Jessie Carney. Notable Black American Women. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992.

Sullivan, Otha R., and James Haskins. African American Inventors. New York: Wiley, 1998.

Tycoons and Entrepreneurs. New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1998.

Vare, Ethlie Ann, andzek. Mothers of Invention: From the Bra to the Bomb: Forgotten Women and Their Unforgettable Ideas. New York: Morrow, 1998.

———. Patently Female: From AZT to TV Dinners: Stories of Women Inventors and Their Breakthrough Ideas. New York: Wiley, 2001.

———. Women Inventors and Their Discoveries. Minneapolis: Oliver Press, 1993.


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American Biographies: American Political Leaders

Asbell, Bernard. The Senate Nobody Knows. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Baker, Richard A., and Roger Davidson, eds. First Among Equals: Senate Leaders of the 20th Century. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1991.

Baker, Ross K. House and Senate: Second Edition. New York: Norton, 1995.

Bennett, Anthony J. The American President's Cabinet. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Blum, John Morton. The Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt, Wilson, Roosevelt, Johnson. New York: Norton, 1982.

Bowman, John S. The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Browne, Ray B. Contemporary Heroes and Heroines. Detroit, Mich: Gale Research, 1990.

Catton, Bruce. The American Heritage New History of the Civil War. New York: Viking, 1996.

Chafe, William H. The Paradox of Change: American Women in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Concise Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner's, 1997.

Contemporary Black Dictionary: Profiles from the International Black Community. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 2001.

Cronin, Thomas E., and Michael A. Genovese. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Current Biography. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1940 to present.

Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies: Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1991.

Davidson, Roger. Congress and Its Members: Seventh Edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1991.

Degregorio, William A. The Complete Book of the U.S. Presidents. New York: Wing Books, 1984.

Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996.

Friedman, Leon, and Fred L. Israel, eds. Justices of the United States Supreme Court, 1789 to 1991: Their Lives and Major Opinions, 5 vols. New York: Chelsea House, revised edition, 1969–1995.

Gaddis, John Lewis. The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

Garcia, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930–1960. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Garraty, John A., and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Goldstein, Leslie F. In Defense of the Text: Democracy and Constitutional Theory. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.

Gosnell, Harold Foote. Negro Politicians: The Rise of Negro Politics in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Graff, Henry F., ed. The Presidents: A Reference History: Second Edition. New York: Scribner's, 1996.

Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hernon, Joseph Martin. Profiles in Character: Hubris and Heroism in the U.S. Senate—1789–1990. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1997.

Hess, Stephen. Presidents and the Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1996.

Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. New York: Knopf, 1955.

———. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. New York: Vintage, reprint, 1989.

Horowitz, Morton. The Transformation of American Law 1780 to 1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

James, Edward T., and Janet Wilson James. Notable American Women, 1607 to 1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1971.

Kane, Joseph N. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information from George Washington to Bill Clinton: Sixth Edition. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1993.

Kaptur, Marcy. Women of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1996.

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. Profiles in Courage. New York: Pocket Books, 1957.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Random House, 1977.

Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr., Philip B. Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt. The American President. New York: Riverhead Books, 1999.

Levy, Leonard W., and Louis Fisher, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Lewis, Thomas T., and Richard L. Wilson. Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court, 3 vols. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 2001.

Logan, Rayford W., and Michael R. Winston. Biographical Dictionary of American Negro Biography. New York: Norton, 1982.

Loomis, Burdett A., ed. Esteemed Colleagues: Civility and Deliberation in the U.S. Senate. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2000.

Lorant, Stefan. The Glorious Burden: The American Presidency. Lenox, Mass.: Author's Editions, 1976.

Magill, Frank N., John L. Loos, and Tracy Irons-Georges, eds. The American Presidents. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 2000.

Martin, Fenton S., and Robert Goehlert. How to Research the Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1996.

Michaels, Judith E. The President's Call: Executive Leadership from FDR to George Bush. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.

Miles, Johnnie H., Juanita J. Davis, Sharon E. Ferguson-Roberts, and Rita Giles. Almanac of African-American History. Paramus, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001.

National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, N.J.: James T. White, 1984.

Nelson, Michael T., ed. The Presidency A to Z: Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998.

Ness, Immanuel, and James Ciment, eds. The Encyclopedia of Third Parties in America. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2000.

Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt and Reagan: Fourth Edition. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Peters, Ronald M., Jr., ed. The Speaker: Leadership in the U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1995.

Ragsdale, Bruce A. Black Americans in Congress, 1870 to 1989. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Ragsdale, Lyn. Vital Statistics on the Presidency: Washington to Clinton. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1996.

Rehnquist, William H. Grand Inquests: The Historic Impeachments of Justice Samuel Chase and President Andrew Johnson. New York: Morrow, 1992.

Rennert, Richard Scott, ed. Female Leaders. New York: Chelsea House, 1993.

Salmore, Stephen A., and Barbara G. Salmore. Candidate, Parties, and Campaigns: Electoral Politics in America. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1989.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., ed. History of U.S. Political Parties: Four Volumes. New York: Chelsea House, 1981.

Schwartz, Bernard. A History of the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Sicherman, Barbara, and Carol Hurd Green. Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1980.

Smith, Gene. When the Cheering Stopped. New York: Morrow, 1964.

Smith, Jessie Carney. Notable Black American Women. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1992.

Smith, Steven S. The American Congress. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995.

Swain, Carol M. Black Faces, Black Interests: Representation of African Americans in Congress. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Tarr, David R., and Ann O'Connor, eds. Congress A to Z: Third Edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.

Telgen, Diane, and Jim Kamp, eds. Notable Hispanic American Women. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1993.

Thomas, Norman C., Joseph A. Pitka, and Richard Watson. The Politics of the Presidency: Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1997.

Witt, Linda, Karen M. Paget, and Glenna Matthews. Running as a Woman: Gender and Power in American Politics. New York: Free Press, 1993.


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American Biographies: American Religious Leaders

Aberle, David. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine, 1966.

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972.

Albanese, Catherine L. America Religion and Religions. 2d ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1992.

———. Nature Religion in America: From the Algonquin Indians to the New Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Alexander, Hartley Burr. The World's Rim: Great Mysteries of the North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1953.

Ammerman, Nancy Tatom. Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Anderson, Edward. Peyote: The Divine Cactus. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980.

Anderson, Victor. Pragmatic Theology: Negotiating the Intersections of an American Philosophy of Religion and Public Theology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Antler, Joyce. The Journey Home: Jewish Women and the American Century. New York: Free Press, 1997.

Baker, Frank. From Wesley to Asbury: Studies in Early American Methodism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1976.

Baum, Charlotte, Paula Hyman, and Sonya Michel. The Jewish Woman in America. New York: Dial Press, 1976.

Bellah, Robert N., and Fredrick E. Greenspahn. Uncivil Religion: Interreligious Hostility in America. New York: Crossroads, 1987.

Bengston, Gloria E. Lutheran Women in Ordained Ministry, 1970–1995: Reflections and Perspectives. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg, 1995.

Beversluis, Joel D., ed. A Sourcebook for the Community of Religions. Chicago: Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions, 1993.

Bierhorst, John. The Sacred Path: Spells, Prayers, and Power Songs of the American Indians. New York: William Morrow, 1983.

Billington, Ray Allen. The Protestant Crusade, 1800–1860: A Study of the Origins of American Nativism. New York: Macmillan 1938.

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cape of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Bowden, Henry Warner. Native Americans and Christian Missions: Studies in Cultural Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Braden, Charles Samuel. These Also Believe: A Study of Modern American Cults and Minority Religious Movements. New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Braude, Ann. Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women's Rights in Nineteenth-Century America. 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Broches, Samuel. Jews in New England. 2 vols. New York: Bloch, 1942.

Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Carmody, Denise L. The Republic of Many Mansions: Foundations of American Religion. New York: Paragon House, 1990.

Carmody, Denise L., and John T. Carmody, Exploring American Religion. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 1990.

Choquette, Diane. New Religious Movements in the United States and Canada: A Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Cimino, Richard, and Don Lattin, Shopping for Faith: American Religion in the New Millennium. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

Contemporary American Religion. Edited by Wade Clark Roof. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000.

Conway, Jill K., Linda Kealey, and Janet E. Schulte. The Female Experience in Eighteenth-and Nineteenth-century America: a Guide to the History of American Women. New York: Garland, 1982.

Cox, Harvey. Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 2d rev. ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Dinnerstein, Leonard. Anti-Semitism in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Dolan, Jay P. The American Catholic Experience: A History from Colonial Times to the Present. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985.

Donin, Hayim Halevy. To Be a Jew: A Guide to Jewish Observance in Contemporary Life. New York: HarperCollins, 1972.

Dooling, D.M., and Paul Jordan-Smith. I Become Part of It: Sacred Dimensions in Native American Life. New York: Parabola Books, 1989.

Eck, Diana L. Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Bonaras. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.

Eerdmans' Handbook to Christianity in America. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1983.

Eliade, Mircea, Victor Turner, et al., eds. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Ellis, J. T., ed. Documents of American Catholic History. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1956.

Ellwood, Robert S., Jr. Alternative Altars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Edited by Samuel S. Hill. Macon, Ga.: Mercer, 1984.

Erdoes, Richard, and Alfonso Ortiz, eds. American Indian Myths and Legends. Westminster, Md.: Pantheon Books, 1984.

Fauset, Arthur. Black Gods of the Metropolis. New York: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.

Fein, Leonard. Where Are We? The Inner Life of America's Jews. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Feingold, Henry L., gen. ed. The Jewish People in America. 5 vols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Finkelstein, Louis. American Spiritual Autobiographies: Fifteen Self-Portraits. New York: Harper, 1948.

Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. The Power of Black Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Forcinelli, Joseph. The Democratization of Religion in America: A Commonwealth of Religious Freedom by Design. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

Fu, Charles W., ed. Religious Issues and Interreligious Dialogues: An Analysis and Sourcebook of Developments Since 1945. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Gallagher, Edward J. Early Puritan Writers, a Reference Guide: William Bradford, John Cotton, Thomas Hooker, Edward Johnson, Richard Mather, Thomas Shepard. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1976.

Garrett, Leroy. The Stone-Campbell Movement: An Anecdotal History of Three Churches. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1981.

Gaustad, Edwin S. A Documentary History of Religion in America. 2 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1982.

———. A Religious History of America. 2d ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990.

Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

Gordon, Milton. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Gort, Jerald D., et al., eds. On Sharing Religious Experience: Possibilities of Interfaith Mutuality. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1992.

Guillermo, Artemio R. Churches Aflame: Asian Americans and United Methodism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991.

Hackett, David G. Religion and American Culture, A Reader. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, ed. The Muslims of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Halvorson, Peter L., and William M. Newman. Atlas of Religious Change in America, 1952–1990. Atlanta: Glenmary Research Center, 1994.

Handy, Robert. A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities. 2d ed. New York: New York University Press, 1984.

Herberg, Will. Protestant–Catholic–Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology. Rev. ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1960.

Hertzberg, Arthur. The Jews in America, Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter: A History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.

Hewitt, Glenn Alden. Regeneration and Morality: A Study of Charles Finney, Charles Hodge, John W. Nevin, and Horace Bushnell. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson, 1991.

Hill, Samuel S. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Macon, Ga.: Mercer, 1984.

Hillman, Eugene. Many Paths: A Catholic Approach to Religious Pluralism. New York: Orbis Books, 1989.

Hoffecker, W. Andrew. Piety and the Princeton Theologians: Archibald Alexander, Charles Hodge, and Benjamin Warfield. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1981.

Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 1993.

Hudson, Winthrop S., and John Corrigan. Religion in America. 5th ed. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1992.

Hultkrantz, Ake. Native Religions of North America. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987.

Hutchison, William R., ed. Between the Times: The Travail of the Protestant Establishment in America 1900–1960. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

———. The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Edited by Paula E. Hyman and Deborah Dash Moore. 2 vols. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Johnson, Jeff G. Black Christians: The Untold Lutheran Story. St. Louis: Concordia, 1991.

Jones, Charles Edwin. Black Holiness. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987.

Joselit, Jenna Weissman. The Wonders of America: Reinventing Jewish Culture 1880–1950. New York: Hill & Wang, 1994.

Knitter, Paul. No Other Name? A Critical Survey of Christian Attitudes Toward the World Religions. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1985.

Kosmin, Barry A., and Seymour P. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society. New York: Harmony Books, 1993.

Koszegi, Michael A., and J. Gordon Melton. Islam in North America: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland, 1992.

Krieger, David J. The New Universalism: Foundations for a Global Theology. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.

Laderman, Gary, ed. Religions of Atlanta: Religious Diversity in the Centennial Olympic City. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996.

Lebeson, Anita Libman. Recall to Life: The Jewish Woman in America. South Brunswick, N.J.: Yoseloff, 1970.

Leone, Mark P. Roots of Modern Mormonism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Lincoln, C. Eric, ed. The Black Experience in Religion. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1974.

Lincoln, C. Eric, and Lawrence H. Mamiya. The Black Church in the African-American Experience. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.

Lindley, Susan Hill. "You Have Stept Out of Your Place": A History of Women and Religion in America. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1996.

Lippy, Charles H., and Peter W. Williams, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.

Lochhead, David. The Dialogical Imperative: A Christian Reflection on Interfaith Encounter. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1988.

Lossky, Nicholas, et al., eds. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1991.

Lubarsky, Sandra B. Tolerance and Transformation: Jewish Approaches to Religious Pluralism. West Orange, N.J.: Cincinnati Hebrew Union College Press, 1990.

Ludlow, Daniel H., ed. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. 5 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

Mallon, Elias D. Neighbors: Muslims in North America. New York: Friendship Press, 1989.

Marcus, Jacob R. The American Jewish Woman: A Documentary History. New York: Ktav; Cincinnati: American Jewish Archives, 1981.

———. Early American Jewry. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1951.

Marsden, George M. Religion and American Culture. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1990.

Martin, William. With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York: Broadway Books, 1996.

Marty, Martin. Modern American Religion. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970–96.

———. Pilgrims in Their Own Land: Five Hundred Years of Religion in America. New York: Viking Penguin, 1985.

Marty, Martin E., and R. Scott Appleby. The Glory and the Power: The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.

Mathews, Donald G. Religion in the Old South. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Matlins, Stuart M. How to Be a Perfect Stranger: A Guide to Etiquette in Other People's Religious Ceremonies. 2 vols. Woodstock, Vt.: Jewish Lights Publishing, 1997.

Matsuoka, Fumitaka. Out of Silence: Emerging Themes in Asian American Churches. Cleveland: United Church Press, 1995.

Mbiti, John. African Religions and Philosophy. Portsmouth, N. H.: Heinemann, 1990.

McCloud, Aminah Beverly. African American Islam. New York: Routledge, 1995.

McLoughlin, William Gerald. Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham. New York: Ronald Press, 1959.

Melton, J. Gordon. Religious Bodies in the United States, a Directory. New York: Garland, 1992.

Moen, Matthew J. The Transformation of the Christian Right. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992.

Moore, R. Laurence. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Morris, Charles R. American Catholic: The Saints and Sinners Who Built America's Most Powerful Church. New York: Times Books, 1997.

Muck, Terry. Those Other Religions in Your Neighborhood: Loving Your Neighbor When You Don't Know How. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1992.

Murphy, Larry G., J. Gordon Melton, and Gary L. Ward, eds. Encyclopedia of African American Religions. New York: Garland, 1993.

Noley, Homer. First White Frost: Native Americans and United Methodism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991.

Noll, Mark A. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1992.

———. ed. The Princeton Theology, 1812–1921: Scripture, Science, Theological Method from Archibald Alexander to Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1983.

———. ed. Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the 1980s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

O'Neil, Maura. Women Speaking, Women Listening: Women in Interreligious Dialogue. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1990.

Oren, Dan A. Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Orsi, Robert Anthony. The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880–1950. New York: Yale University Press, 1985.

Peden, Creighton. The Chicago School: Voices in Liberal Religious Thought. Bristol, Ind.: Wyndham Hall Press, 1987.

Perry, Michael J. Love and Power: The Role of Morality and Religion in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Powers, William K. Oglala Religion. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.

Queen, Edward L., Stephen R. Prothero, and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr. The Encyclopedia of American Religious History. 2 vols. New York: Facts On File, 1996.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: "The Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Race, Alan. Christians and Religious Pluralism. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1982.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson, ed. We'll Understand It Better, By and By. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press; New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Reid, Daniel G., ed. Dictionary of Christianity in America. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1990.

Richardson, E. Allen. East Comes West. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1985.

———. Strangers in This Land: Pluralism and the Response to Diversity in the United States. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1988.

Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Sarna, Jonathan D., ed. The Jews of Boston. Boston: American Jewish Historical Society, 1996.

Schultz, Jeffrey D., John G. West, and Iain S. MacLean. Encyclopedia of Religion in American Politics. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1999.

Seltzer, Robert M., and Norman J. Cohen, eds. The Americanization of the Jews. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Sernett, Milton C. Afro-American Religious History: A Documentary Witness. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1985.

Shipps, Jan. Mormonism: The Story of a New Religious Tradition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Shulman, Albert M. The Religious Heritage of America. San Diego: A.S. Barnes, 1981.

Silberman, Charles E. A Certain People: American Jews and Their Lives Today. New York: Summit, 1985.

Skerrett, Ellen, Edward B. Kantowicz, and Steven V. Avella. Catholicism Chicago Style. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1993.

Smith, W. C. Religious Diversity. New York: Crossroads, 1981.

Spalding, Thomas W. The Premier See. A History of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, 1789–1989. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Sullivan, Lawrence E., ed.. Native American Religions: North America. New York: Macmillan, 1989.

Sweet, W. W. Makers of Christianity: From John Cotton to Lyman Abbott. New York: Macmillan, 1921.

Thiemann, Ronald F. Religion in Public Life: A Dilemma for Democracy. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1996.

Thompson, Ernest Trice. Presbyterians in the South. 3 vols. Richmond, Va.: John Knox Press, 1963–73.

Thompson, Norma H., ed. Religious Pluralism and Religious Education. Birmingham, Ala.: Religious Education Press, 1988.

Twentieth-Century Shapers of American Popular Religion. Edited by Charles H. Lippy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Underhill, Ruth M. Red Man's Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Vecsey, Christopher. Imagine Ourselves Richly: Mythic Narratives of North American Indians. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

–––, ed. Religion in Native North America. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1990.

Villafane, Eldin. The Liberating Spirit: Toward an Hispanic American Pentecostal Social Ethic. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1993.

Wacker, Grant. Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Wagenknecht, Edward. Daughters of the Covenant: Portraits of Six Jewish Women. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1983.

Wald, Kenneth D. Religion and Politics in the United States. 3d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997.

Walker, Wyatt Tee. Somebody's Calling My Name: Black Sacred Music and Social Change. Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1979.

Wall, Steve. Shadowcatchers: A Journey in Search of the Teachings of Native American Healers. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Washington, James Melvin. Conversations with God: Two Centuries of Prayers by African Americans. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Weber, Paul J., and W. Landis, Jones. U.S. Religious Interest Groups: Institutional Profiles. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Weinberg, Sydney Stahl. The World of Our Mothers: The Lives of Jewish Immigrant Women. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Wentz, Richard E. The Culture of Religious Pluralism. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

———. Religion in the New World: The Shaping of Religious Traditions in the United States. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.

Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi, and Geoffrey Wigoder, eds. The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966.

Wilcox, Clyde. God's Warriors: The Christian Right in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Williams, Peter W. America's Religions: Traditions and Cultures. New York: MacMillan Press, 1990.

———. Popular Religion in America: Symbolic Change and the Modernization Process in Historical Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980.

Williams, Raymond Brady. Religions of Immigrants from India and Pakistan: New Threads in the American Tapestry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Williamson, William B., ed. An Encyclopedia of Religions in the United States: One Hundred Religious Groups Speak for Themselves. New York: Crossroads, 1992.

Wilmore, Gayraud S. Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of the Afro-American People. 2d ed. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1983.

Wilson, John F, ed. Church and State in America: A Bibliographical Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Wilson, John F., and Donald L. Drakeman, eds. Church and State in American History: The Burden of Religious Pluralism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1987.

Wind, James P., and James W. Lewis, eds. American Congregations. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Woodson, Carter G. The History of the Negro Church. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1992.

Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Ziolkowski, Eric J., ed. A Museum of Faiths: Histories and Legacies of the 1893 World's Parliament of Religions. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholar's Press, 1993.


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American Biographies: American Social Leaders and Activists

Abzug, Robert H. American Reform and the Religious Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Aurand, Harold W. From the Molly Maguires to the United Mine Workers: The Social Ecology of an Industrial Union, 1869–1897. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1971.

Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Bernstein, Irving. The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933. New York: Da Capo, 1983.

———. The Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970.

Bordin, Ruth. Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Bristow, Nancy K. Making Men Moral: Social Engineering During the Great War. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

Buhle, Mary Jo. Women and American Socialism, 1870–1920. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Castro, Ginette. American Feminism: A Contemporary History. New York: New York University Press, 1990.

Chafe, William H. Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina and the Black Struggle for Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

———. The Paradox of Change: American Women in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Cott, Nancy F. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987.

Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876–1980. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

———. The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876–1957. New York: Vintage, 1964.

Crocker, Ruth Hutchinson. Social Work and Social Order: The Settlement Movement in Two Industrial Cities, 1889–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Crunden, Robert M. Ministers of Reform: The Progressives' Achievements in American Civilization, 1889–1920. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Davis, Allen F. Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890–1914. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

Davis, Flora. Moving the Mountain: The Woman's Movement Since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Dubofsky, Melvyn. Industrialism and the American Worker, 1865–1920. 2nd ed. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1985.

Ebner, Michael H., and Eugene M. Tobin, eds. The Age of Urban Reform: New Perspective on the Progressive Era. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat, 1977.

Eichols, Alice. Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Epstein, Barbara. Political Protest and Cultural Revolution: Nonviolent Direct Action in the 1970s and 1980s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Farber, David R. Chicago '68. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Fixico, Donald L. Termination and Relocation: Federal Indian Policy, 1945–1960. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986.

Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. 8 vols. New York: International Publishers, 1972–1975.

Formisano, Ronald P. Boston Against Busing: Race, Class and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss, Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of the Negro Americans. 6th ed. New York: Knopf, 1988.

Garcia, Maro T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930–1960. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

Ginzberg, Lori D. Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics, and Class in the Nineteenth-Century United States. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.

Goodwyn, Lawrence. Democratic Promise: The Populist Movement in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Green, James R. Grass-Roots Socialism: Radical Movements in the Southwest, 1895–1943. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.

Griffin, Clifford Stephen. Their Brothers' Keepers: Moral Stewardship in the United States, 1800–1865. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Gusfield, Joseph R. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement. 2nd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986.

Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F. D. R. New York: Knopf, 1955.

Howe, Irving, and Lewis Coser. The American Communist Party: A Crucial History. New York: Da Capo, 1974.

Isserman, Maurice. If I Had a Hammer...The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left. New York: Basic Books, 1987.

Jackson, Kenneth T. The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915–1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Katz, Michael B. Class, Bureaucracy, and Schools: The Illusion of Educational Change in America. Rev. ed. New York: Praeger, 1975.

Klatch, Rebecca E. Women of the New Right. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987.

Kraditor, Aileen S. The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890–1920. New York: Norton, 1981.

Lasch, Christopher. The New Radicalism in America, 1889–1963: The Intellectual as a Social Type. New York: Norton, 1986.

Laslett, John H. M., and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds. Failure of a Dream? Essays in the History of American Socialism. Rev. ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Lawson, Stephen F. Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America Since 1941. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Mandle, Jay R. Not Slave, Not Free: The African American Economic Experience Since the Civil War. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1992.

Marchand, C. Roland. The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1898–1918. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

McKivigan, John R., ed. Abolitionism and American Reform. New York: Garland Publishers, 1999.

Miller, Jim. "Democracy Is in the Streets": From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.

Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865–1925. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Muñoz, Carlos, Jr. Youth, Identity, and Power: The Chicano Movement. London: Verso, 1989.

Patterson, James T. America's Struggle Against Poverty, 1900–1985. Rev ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Pease, William Henry, and Jane H. Pease. Black Utopia: Negro Communal Experiments in America. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963.

———. They Who Would Be Free: Blacks' Search for Freedom, 1830–1861. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.


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First Ladies

Adams, Abigail. New Letters of Abigail Adams, 1788–1801, ed. Stewart Mitchell. Boston: Little, Brown, 1947.

Adams, Abigail, and John Adams. The Book of Abigail and John: Selected Letters of the Adams Family, 1762–1784, ed. L. H. Butterfield et al. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Adams, John. The Adams-Jefferson Letters, ed. Lester J. Cappon. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

Adams, Samuel Hopkins. Incredible Era: The Life and Times of Warren Gamaliel Harding. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939.

Akers, Charles W. Abigail Adams: An American Woman, ed. Oscar Handlin. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

Allen, Anne Beiser. An Independent Woman: The Life of Lou Henry Hoover. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2000.

Allgor, Catherine. Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon. 2 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Anderson, Judith Icke. William Howard Taft: An Intimate History. New York: Norton, 1981.

Anthony, Carl Sferrazza. America's First Families: An Inside View of 200 Years of Private Life in the White House. New York: Touchstone, 2000.

———. America's Most Influential First Ladies. Minneapolis: Oliver, 1992.

———. As We Remember Her: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in the Words of Her Friends and Family. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

———. First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power, 1789–1961. New York: Morrow, 1990.

———. Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the Death of America's Most Scandalous President. New York: Morrow, 1998.

———. "Pat Nixon's Happy Golden Years," Good Housekeeping (January 1999).

———. "Wythville's First Woman President," Roanoker Magazine (October 1990).

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Baldridge, Letitia. Of Diamonds and Diplomats: An Autobiography of a Happy Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.

Barzman, Sol. The First Ladies. New York: Cowles, 1970.

Bassett, Margaret. American Presidents and their Wives. Freeport, Maine: Wheelwright, Bond, 1969.

Bauer, K. Jack. Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman in the Old South. Newton, Conn.: American Political Biography, 1993.

Beasley, Maurine H., Holly C. Shulman, and Henry R. Beasley, eds. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2000.

Belden, Henry S., comp. and ed. Grand Tour of Ida Saxton-McKinley and Sister Mary Saxton Barber, 1869. Canton, Ohio: Reserve Printing, 1985.

Boas, Norman F. Jane M. Pierce. (The Pierce-Aiken Papers). Stonington, Conn.: Seaport Autographs, 1983.

———. Jane M. Pierce. (The Pierce-Aiken Papers). Supplement. Stonington, Conn.: Seaport Autographs, 1989.

Boller, Paul F., Jr. Presidential Wives: An Anecdotal History, rev. ed. New York: Oxford, 1998.

Boyd, Aaron. First Lady: The Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds, 1994.

Bradford, Sarah. America's Queen: The Life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. New York: Viking, 2000.

Brandon, Dorothy. Mamie Doud Eisenhower: A Portrait of a First Lady. New York: Scribner's, 1954.

Brendon, Piers. Ike: His Life and Times. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Brinkley, Douglas. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey Beyond the White House. New York: Viking, 1998.

Brock, David. The Seduction of Hillary Rodham. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Brodie, Fawn M. Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History. New York: Bantam, 1975.

Brodsky, Alyn. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character. New York: St. Martin's, 2000.

Bumgarner, John. Sarah Childress Polk: A Biography of the Remarkable First Lady. New York: McFarland, 1997.

Burner, David. Herbert Hoover: A Public Life. New York: Knopf, 1979.

Burns, Paul A. "Profile of the First Lady," New Yorker (May 15, 1926): 17–18.

Bush, Barbara. Barbara Bush: A Memoir. New York: Scribner's, 1994.

Cannon, James M. Time and Chance: Gerald Ford's Appointment with History. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Caro, Robert A. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Caroli, Betty Boyd. First Ladies. New York: Oxford, 1987.

———. The Roosevelt Women. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Carpenter, Frank G. Carp's Washington, ed. Frances Carpenter. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

Carpenter, Liz. Ruffles and Flourishes. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.

Carter, Jimmy. Keeping Faith. New York: Bantam, 1982.

Carter, Rosalynn. First Lady from Plains. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984.

———. Helping Yourself Help Others. New York: Random House, 1995.

———. "Leave My Husband Alone," New Republic, January 30, 1995.

Chitwood, Perry. John Tyler: Champion of the Old South. 1939. Reprint, New York: American Political Biography, 1990.

Citizen of Washington, A. Etiquette at Washington: Together with the Customs adopted by Polite Society in the Other Cities of the United States, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Murphy, 1857.

Claxton, Jimmie Lou Sparkman. 88 Years with Sarah Polk. New York: Vantage, 1972.

Cleaves, Freeman. Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. Newtown, Conn.: APB Press, 1967.

Clinton, Hillary Rodham. It Takes a Village. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Coleman, Elizabeth Tyler. Priscilla Cooper Tyler and The American Scene. Birmingham: University of Alabama Press, 1955.

Colman, Edna M. White House Gossip: From Andrew Jackson to Calvin Coolidge. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1927.

Cook, Blanche Wiesen, Eleanor Roosevelt, Vol. 1, 1884–1933. New York: Viking, 1992.

———. Eleanor Roosevelt, Vol. 2, 1933–1938. New York: Viking, 1999.

Coolidge, Grace Goodhue. Grace Coolidge: An Autobiography, ed. Lawrence E. Wikander and Robert H. Ferrell. Worland, Wyo.: High Plains, 1992.

Corbett, Katherine, "Louisa Catherine Adams: The Anguished 'Adventures of a Nobody,'" in Women's Being, Women's Place: Female Identity and Vocation in American History, ed. Mary Kelley. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979.

Crook, William Henry. Memories of the White House: The Home Life of Our Presidents from Lincoln to Roosevelt, comp. and ed. Henry Rood. Boston: Little, Brown, 1911.

———. Through Five Administrations, ed. Margarita Spalding Gerry. New York: Harper, 1910.

Curtis, Charlotte. First Lady. New York: Pyramid, 1962.

Cutts, Lucia Beverley, ed. Memoirs and Letters of Dolley Madison, Wife of James Madison, President of the United States. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1886.

Daugherty, Harry M. The Inside Story of the Harding Tragedy. New York: Churchill, 1932.

David, Lester. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. New York: Birch Lane Books, 1994.

———. The Lonely Lady of San Clemente: The Story of Pat Nixon. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1978.

———, and Irene David. Ike and Mamie: The Story of the General and His Lady. New York: Putnam's, 1981.

Davis, John. The Bouviers: From Waterloo to the Kennedys and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: National Press, 1993.

———. The Kennedys: Dynasty and Disaster. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.

Deaver, Michael K. Behind the Scenes. New York: Morrow, 1987.

Desmond, Alice C. Martha Washington, Our First Lady. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1942.

Diller, Daniel C., and Stephen L. Robertson. The Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice-Presidents: White House Biographies. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books, 2000.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln at Home: Two Glimpses of Abraham Lincoln's Family Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000.

Dumas, Ernest, ed. The Clintons of Arkansas: An Introduction by Those Who Knew Them Best. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

Dyer, Brainerd. Zachary Taylor. 1946. Reprint, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1967 (1946).

Edmondson, Madeline, and Alder Duer Cohen. The Women of Watergate. New York: Stein, 1975.

Eisenhower, John. Strictly Personal. 1946. Reprint, New York: Doubleday, 1974.

Eisenhower, Julie Nixon. Pat Nixon: The Untold Story. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.

———. Special People. New York: Thomas, 1977.

Eisenhower, Susan. Mrs. Ike: Memories and Reflections on the Life of Mamie Eisenhower. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1996.

Ferrell, Robert H., ed. Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman 1910–1959. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1983.

Fields, Joseph E., comp. "Worthy Partner": The Papers of Martha Washington, introd. Ellen McCallister Clark. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.

Foraker, Julia. I Would Live It Again: Memories of a Vivid Life. New York: Harper, 1932.

Ford, Betty. A Glad Awakening. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987.

———, with Chris Chase. The Times of My Life. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.

Foreman, Norma Ruth Holly. "The First Lady as a Leader of Public Opinion: A Study of the Role and Press Relations of Lady Bird Johnson." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1971.

Frederick, Pauline. Ten First Ladies of the World. New York: Meredith Press, 1967.

Furman, Bess. Washington By-Line: The Personal History of a Newspaperwoman. New York: Knopf, 1949.

———. White House Profile. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1951.

Gara, Larry. The Presidency of Franklin Pierce. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Gardiner, John Lion. The Gardiners of Gardiners Island. East Hampton, N.Y.: Star Press, 1927.

Garfield, Lucretia, and James Garfield. Crete and James: Personal Letters of Lucretia and James Garfield, ed. John Shaw. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994.

Garrison, Webb. White House Ladies: Fascinating Tales and Colorful Curiosities. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1996.

Geer, Emily Apt. First Lady: The Life of Lucy Webb Hayes. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1984.

Gelles, Edith B. Portia: The World of Abigail Adams. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Glendon, Mary Anne. A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House, 2001.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

Gould, Lewis L. "First Ladies," American Scholar 55 (Autumn 1986): 528–35.

———. "Modern First Ladies and the Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 20 (1990): 677–83.

———. Lady Bird Johnson and the Environment. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.

———, ed. American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy. New York: Garland, 1996.

Grant, Julia Dent. The Personal Memoirs of Julia Dent Grant, ed. John Y. Simon. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975.

Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. 2 vol. New York: Charles L. Webster, 1885.

Grayson, Benson Lee. The Unknown President: The Administration of Millard Fillmore. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1981.

Grimes, Ann. Running Mates: The Making of a First Lady. New York: William Morrow, 1990.

Gutin, Myra G. The President's Partner: The First Lady in the Twentieth Century. New York: Greenwood, 1989.

Hagedorn, Hermann. The Roosevelt Family of Sagamore Hill. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

Haldeman, H. R., ed. The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1994.

Hall, Gordon Langley, and Ann Pinchot. Jacqueline Kennedy: A Woman for the World. New York: F. Fell, 1964.

Hamilton, Holman. The Three Kentucky Presidents: Lincoln, Taylor, Davis. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1978.

———. Zachary Taylor: Soldier of the Republic. 1941. Reprint, Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1966.

———. Zachary Taylor: Soldier in the White House. 1951. Reprint, Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1966.

Hartzell, Josiah. Sketch of the Life of Mrs. William McKinley. Washington, D.C.: Home Magazine Press, 1896.

Hatch, Alden. Edith Bolling Wilson, First Lady Extraordinary. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1961.

———. Red Carpet for Mamie. New York: Henry Holt, 1954.

Hay, Peter. All the Presidents' Ladies: Anecdotes of the Women Behind the Men in the White House. New York: Viking, 1988.

Healy, Diana Dixon. America's First Ladies: Private Lives of the Presidential Wives. New York: Atheneum, 1988.

Hecht, Marie. John Quincy Adams: A Personal History of an Independent Man 1972. Reprint, New York: American Political Biography, 1995.

Helm, Edith. The Captains and the Kings. New York: Putnam's, 1954.

Helm, Katherine. The True Story of Mary, Wife of Lincoln. New York: Harper, 1928.

Heymann, C. David. A Woman Named Jackie. New York: Carol Communications, 1989.

Hoff-Wilson, Joan. Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

Holloway, Laura C. Ladies of the White House. Philadelphia: Bradley, 1881.

Hoogenboom, Ari. Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior and President. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1950.

Hoover, Irwin Hood. Forty-Two Years in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934.

Hotchner, A. E. Choice People: The Greats, Near-Greats, and Ingrates I Have Known. New York: William Morrow, 1984.

Howar, Barbara. Laughing All the Way. New York: Stein & Day, 1973.

Hoyt, Edwin P. The Nixons: An American Family. New York: Random House, 1972.

Hunt-Jones, Conover. Dolley and the "Great Little Madison." Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects Foundation, 1977.

Jaffray, Elizabeth. Secrets of the White House. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.

James, Edward I. et al. Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Jefferson, H. Paul. An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland. New York: Aaron, 2000.

Jeffries, Ona Griffin. In and Out of the White House from Washington to the Eisenhowers. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1960.

Jensen, Amy LaFollette. The White House and Its Thirty-Five Families. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.

Johnson, Lady Bird. A White House Diary. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.

Kearns, Doris. Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

Kellerman, Barbara. All the President's Kin. New York: Free Press, 1981.

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Kelly, C. Brian. Best Little Stories from the White House. Charlottesville, Va.: Montpelier, 1992.

Kilian, Pamela. Barbara Bush: A Biography. Thorndike, Maine: Thorndike Press, 1992.

Kimball, D.L. I Remember Mamie. Fayette, Iowa: Trends and Events, 1981.

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———. Maryland's Presidential First Ladies: Mrs. Zachary Taylor and Mrs. John Quincy Adams. Calvert County, Md.: Calvert County Historical Society, 1966.

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———. Eleanor: The Years Alone. New York: Norton, 1972.

———. Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.

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———, and Harry J. Brown. The Garfield Orbit. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.

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———, with Margaret Y. Gaffey. The Woodrow Wilsons. New York: Macmillan, 1937.

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———. Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

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———. Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan. New York: Random House, 1999.

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———. Descent from Glory: Four Generations of the Adams Family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

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———, ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1933.

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———. The General's Wife: The Life of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1959.

———. Grace Coolidge and Her Era: The Story of a President's Wife. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1962.

———. Power with Grace: The Life Story of Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1975.

———. The President's Wife: Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.

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———. James K. Polk: Jacksonian 1795–1843. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957.

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———. Front Row at the White House: My Life and Times. New York: Scribner, 1999.

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———. First Ladies: An Intimate Group Portrait of White House Wives. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1995.

Turner, Justin G., and Linda Levitt Turner. Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters. New York: Knopf, 1972.

Van der Heuvel, Gerry. Crowns of Thorns and Glory: Mary Todd Lincoln and Varina Davis. New York: Dutton, 1988.

Waldrup, Carole Chandler. The Presidents' Wives: The Lives of 44 American Women of Strength. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1989.

Wallace, Chris. First Lady: A Portrait of Nancy Reagan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.

Warner, Judith. Hillary Clinton: The Inside Story. New York: Penguin, 1993.

Wasserman, Carl David. "Firing the First Lady: The Role and Accountability of the Presidential Spouse," Vanderbilt Law Review (May 1995).

Watson, Robert P. The Presidents' Wives: Reassessing the Office of First Lady. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

———, ed. The Report to the First Lady. Huntington, N.Y.: Nova Science, 2001.

Weaver, Judith L. "Edith Bolling Wilson as First Lady: A Study in the Power of Personality," Presidential Studies Quarterly (Winter 1985).

Weidenfeld, Sheila Rabb. First Lady's Lady: With the Fords at the White House. New York: Putnam, 1979.

West, J. B., with Mary Kotz. Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. New York: Coward McCann, 1973.

Wharton, Anne Hollingsworth. Martha Washington. New York: Scribner's, 1897.

Whitcomb, John, and Claire Whitcomb. Real Life at the White House: Two Hundred Years of Daily Life at America's Most Famous Residence. New York: Routledge, 2000.

White, William Allen. A Puritan in Babylon. New York: Macmillan, 1938.

Whitton, Mary Ormsbee. First First Ladies, 1789–1865: A Study of the Wives of the Early Presidents. 1948. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1969.

Willets, Gilson. Inside History of the White House. New York: Christian Herald, 1908.

Williams, T. Harry, ed. Hayes: The Diary of a President, 1876–1881. New York: David McKay, 1964.

Wills, Garry. "The Clinton Scandals." New York Review of Books (April 18, 1996).

———. Reagan's America: Innocents at Home. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987.

Wilson, Dorothy Clarke. Queen Dolley: The Life and Times of Dolley Madison. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987.

Wilson, Edith Bolling. My Memoir. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1939.

Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend. New York: Free Press, 1981.

Woodward, Bob. Shadow: Five Presidencies and the Legacy of Watergate. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1999.

Wooton, James E. Elizabeth Kortright Monroe. Charlottesville, Va.: Ash Lawn–Highland, 1987.

N.B. The National First Ladies' Library at 331 South Market Avenue, Canton, Ohio 44702, 330-452-0876, offers helpful information at its web site: www.firstladies.org.


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Presidents

Overviews of the American Presidency

Barber, James David. The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1992.

Berman, Larry. The New American Presidency. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.

Corwin, Edward S. The President, Office and Powers, 1787–1957: History and Analysis of Practice and Opinion. 4th ed. New York: New York University Press, 1957.

Cronin, Thomas E. The State of the Presidency. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

Cronin, Thomas E., and Michael A. Genovese. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Dallek, Robert. Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents. New York: Hyperion, 1996.

Edwards, George E., III, and Stephen J. Wayne, Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

Gilbert, Robert E. The Mortal Presidency: Illness and Anguish in the White House. 2nd ed. New York: Fordham University Press, 1998.

Greenstein, Fred I. Leadership in the Modern Presidency. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

———. The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Clinton. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Hargrove, Erwin C. The President as Leader: Appealing to the Better Angels of Our Nature. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Hart, John. The Presidential Branch. 2nd ed. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 1995.

Herring, Pendleton. Presidential Leadership: The Political Relations of Congress and the Chief Executive. New York: Rinehart, 1940.

Jones, Charles O. Passages to the Presidency: From Campaigning to Governing. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998. ———. The Presidency in a Separated System. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994.

Koenig, Louis W. The Chief Executive. 4th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1981.

Kunhardt, Jr., Philip B., Philip B. Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt. The American President. New York: Riverhead Books, 1999.

Laski, Harold Joseph. The American Presidency: An Interpretation. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940.

Leuchtenburg, William E. In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to Bill Clinton. Rev. ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Lowi, Theodore. The Personal President: Power Invested, Promise Unfulfilled. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Murray, Robert K. Greatness in the White House: Rating the Presidents from George Washington Through Ronald Reagan. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.

Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Pfiffner, James P. The Modern Presidency. 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1998.

———. The Strategic Presidency. 2nd ed. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Rossiter, Clinton. The American Presidency. 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1960.

On the Organization of the Presidency

Burke, John P. The Institutional Presidency. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

George, Alexander L. Presidential Decision Making in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Advice and Information. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1979.

Grover, William F. The President as Prisoner: A Structural Critique of the Carter and Reagan Years. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Hess, Stephen. Organizing the Presidency. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

Hoxie, R. Gordon. The White House: Organization and Operations. New York: Center for the Study of the Presidency, 1971.

Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. The Imperial Presidency. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.

Skowronek, Stephen. The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to George Bush. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Walcott, Charles E., and Karen M. Hult. Governing the White House: From Hoover Through LBJ. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Warshaw, Shirley Anne. The Domestic Presidency: Policy Making in the White House. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997.

Weko, Thomas J. The Politicizing Presidency: The White House Personnel Office, 1948–1994. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

On the Relationship Between Congress and the Presidency

Collier, Kenneth E. Between the Branches: The White House Office of Legislative Affairs. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.

Edwards, George C. III. At the Margins: Presidential Leadership and Congress. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congress and the Executive. 4th ed. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1998.

Flynn, James J. Winning the Presidency: The Difficulty of Election. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Theo. Gauss, 1976.

Peterson, Mark A. Legislating Together: The White House and Capitol Hill from Eisenhower to Reagan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Watson, Richard A. Presidential Vetoes and Public Policy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

On the Relationship Between the President and the Public

Brody, Richard A. Assessing the President: The Media, Elite Opinion, and Public Support. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Cohen, Jeffrey E. Presidential Responsiveness and Public Policy-Making: The Public and the Politics that Presidents Choose. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

Kernell, Samuel. Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

Mueller, John E. War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Wiley, 1973.

Detailed Compendium of Facts about the Presidents

Kane, Joseph Nathan. Presidential Fact Book. New York: Random House, 1999.


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Supreme Court Justices

General Materials Concerning the Supreme Court

Abraham, Henry Julian. The Judiciary: The Supreme Court in the Governmental Process. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

———. Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U.S. Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Clinton. 4th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.

Atkinson, David N. Leaving the Bench: Supreme Court Justices at the End. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.

Baum, Lawrence. The Supreme Court. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998.

Bickel, Alexander M. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962.

———. The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.

Birkby, Robert H. The Court and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1983.

Biskupic, Joan & Elder Witt. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 3d ed. 1997.

Blandford, Linda A., and Patricia R. Evans, eds. Supreme Court of the United States, 1789–1980: An Index to Opinions Arranged by Justice. Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus International Publications, 1983; Supplement 1980–90, 1994.

Blaustein, Albert P., and Roy M. Mersky. The First One Hundred Justices: Statistical Studies on the Supreme Court of the United States. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1978.

Bogen, David S. Bulwark of Liberty: The Court and the First Amendment. Port Washington, N.Y.: Associated Faculty Press, 1984.

Braeman, John. Before the Civil Rights Revolution: the Old Court and Individual Rights. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Brandwein, Pamela. Reconstructing Reconstruction: The Supreme Court and the Production of Historical Truth. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1999.

Brenner, Saul & Harold J. Spaeth. Stare Indecisis: The Alteration of Precedent on the Supreme Court, 1946–1992. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Bronner, Ethan. Battle for Justice: How the Bork Nomination Shook America. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1989.

Burger, Warren E. It Is So Ordered: A Constitution Unfolds. New York: William Morrow, 1995.

Campbell, Tom Walter. Four Score Forgotten Men; Sketches of the Justices of the US Supreme Court: Little Rock, Ark.: Pioneer Publishing, 1950.

Carson, Hampton Lawrence. The History of the Supreme Court of the United States, With Biographies of all the Chief and Associate Justices. 1902. Reprint. New York: B. Franklin, 1971.

Carter, Lief H. Contemporary Constitutional Lawmaking: The Supreme Court and the Art of Politics. New York: Pergamon Press, 1985.

Cheney, Timothy D. Who Makes the Law: The Supreme Court, Congress, the States, and Society. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Choper, Jesse H. Judicial Review and the National Political Process: A Functional Reconsideration of the Role of the Supreme Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Choper, Jesse H., ed. The Supreme Court and Its Justices. Chicago: American Bar Association, 1987.

Cooper, Phillip J. Battles on the Bench: Conflict Inside the Supreme Court. Lawrence.: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Cox, Archibald. The Court and the Constitution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Curie, David P. The Constitution in the Supreme Court: The Second Century, 1888–1986. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

———. The Constitution in the Supreme Court: The First Hundred Years, 1789–1888. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995. 2d. ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

Dimond, Paul R. The Supreme Court and Judicial Choice: The Role of Provisional Review in a Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

Dunham, Allison, and Philip B. Kurland, eds. Mr. Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Epstein, Lee & Thomas G. Walker. Constitutional Law for a Changing America: Rights, Liberties, and Justice. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2d ed. 1995.

Faille, Christopher C. The Decline and Fall of the Supreme Court: Living out the Nightmares of the Federalists. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.

Flanders, Henry. The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. 1881. Reprint. Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 1972.

Franck, Matthew J. Against the Imperial Judiciary: The Supreme Court vs. the Sovereignty of the People. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Fridlington, Robert. The Reconstruction Court, 1864–1888. Millwood, N.Y.: Associated Faculty Press, 1969–1978.

Friedman, Leon & Fred L. Israel, eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vols. 1–5. New York: Chelsea House, 1995.

Galloway, Russell. Justice for All?: The Rich and Poor in Supreme Court History, 1790–1990. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1991.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Goldstein, Joseph. The Intelligible Constitution: The Supreme Court's Obligation to Maintain the Constitution as Something We the People Can Understand. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Greenberg, Ellen. The Supreme Court Explained. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.

Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Harrell, Mary Anne, and Burnett Anderson. Equal Justice Under Law: The Supreme Court in American Life. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court Historical Society, with National Geographic Society, 1994.

Harrison, Maureen & Steve Gilbert, eds. Landmark Decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Excellent Books, 1991.

———. Landmark Decisions of the United States Supreme Court II. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Excellent Books, 1992.

———. Landmark Decisions of the United States Supreme Court III. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Excellent Books, 1992.

History of the Supreme Court of the United States (The Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise). 9 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1971–1993.

Irons, Peter H. A People's History of the Supreme Court. New York: Viking, 1999.

Jacobs, Roger F., comp. Memorials of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Littleton, Colo.: Fred B. Rothman, 1981.

Jacobstein, J. Myron. The Rejected: Sketches of the 26 Men Nominated for the Supreme Court but Not Confirmed by the Senate. Milpitas, Calif.: Toucan Valley Publications, 1993.

Joseph, Joel D. Black Mondays: Worst Decisions of the Supreme Court. Bethesda, Md.: National Press, 1987.

Jost, Kenneth, ed. The Supreme Court A to Z. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 2d ed. 1998.

Karfunkel, Thomas & Thomas W. Ryley. The Jewish Seat: Anti-semitism and the Appointment of Jews to the Supreme Court. Hicksville, N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1978.

Katzmann, Robert A. Courts and Congress. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press/Governance Institute, 1997.

Lamb, Charles M., and Stephen C. Halpern, eds. The Burger Court, Political and Judicial Profiles. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Lankevich, George J., ed. Supreme Court in American Life. 9 vols. Millwood, N.Y.: Associated Faculty Press, 1986–.

Lasser, William. The Limits of Judicial Power: The Supreme Court in American Politics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Leahy, James E. Freedom Fighters of the United States Supreme Court: Nine Who Championed Individual Liberty. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1996.

———. Supreme Court Justices Who Voted with the Government: Nine Who Favored the State over Individual Rights. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1999.

Lemer, Max. Nine Scorpions in a Bottle: Great Judges and Cases of the Supreme Court. Edited by Richard Cummings. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1994.

Leuchtenburg, William Edward. The Supreme Court Reborn: The Constitutional Revolution in the Age of Roosevelt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Lewis, Frederick P. The Context of Judicial Activism: The Endurance of the Warren Court Legacy in a Conservative Age. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Lieberman, Jethro Koller. A Practical Companion to the Constitution: How the Supreme Court Has Ruled on Issues from Abortion to Zoning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Maltese, John Anthony. The Selling of Supreme Court Nominees. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Marcus, Maeva, ed. The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789–1800. 6 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Martin, Fenton S. How to Research the Supreme Court. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1992.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. The Supreme Court From Taft to Burger. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

Mayer, Robert R. The Court and the American Crises, 1930–1952. Fort Washington, N.Y.: Associated Faculty Press, 1987.

McCloskey, Robert G. The American Supreme Court. Revised by Sanford Levinson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2d ed. 1994.

Mersky, Roy M., comp. The Supreme Court of the United States. Hearings and Reports on Successful and Unsuccessful Nominations of Supreme Court Justices by the Senate Judiciary Committee, 1916–1995. 19 vols. Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 1977–1996.

O'Brien, David M. Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics. 4th ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996.

Perry, Barbara A. The Priestly Tribe: The Supreme Court's Image in the American Mind. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.

Schwartz, Bernard. A History of the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

———. Decision: How the Supreme Court Decides Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Semonche, John E. Keeping the Faith: A Cultural History of the U.S. Supreme Court. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998.

Shnayerson, Robert. The Illustrated History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Henry N. Abrams in association with the Supreme Court Historical Society, 1986.

Simon, James F. The Center Holds: The Power Struggle Inside the Rehnquist Court. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Simon, Paul. Advice & Consent: The Senators and the Justices. Bethesda, Md.: National Press Books, 1992.

Smolla, Rodney A. A Year in the Life of the Supreme Court. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.

Stephenson, D. Grier, Jr. Campaigns and the Court: The U.S. Supreme Court in Presidential Elections. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Stevens, Richard G. and Matthew J. Franck, eds. Sober as a Judge: The Supreme Court and Republican Liberty. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 1999.

The Supreme Court of the United States: Its Beginning & Its Justices, 1790–1991. Washington, D.C.: Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1992.

Tribe, Laurence H. God Save This Honorable Court: How the Choice of Supreme Court Justices Shapes Our History. New York: Random House, 1985.

Umbreit, Kenneth Bernard. Our Eleven Chief Justices: A History of the Supreme Court in Terms of Their Personalities. 1938. Reprint. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1969.

Urofsky, Melvin I., ed. The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Van Santvoord, George. Sketches of the Lives and Judicial Services of the Chief-Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: C. Scribner, 1854.

Warren, Charles. The Supreme Court in United States History. Boston: Little, Brown, rev. ed. 1935.

Wasby, Stephen L. The Supreme Court in the Federal Judicial System. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2d ed. 1984.

Westin, Alan F., ed. An Autobiography of the Supreme Court. Off-the-Bench Commentary by the Justices. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Wiecek, William M. Liberty Under Law: The Supreme Court in American Life. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

White, G. Edward. The American Judicial Tradition: Profiles of Leading American Judges. New York: Oxford University Press, rev. ed. 1988.

Witt, Elder. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1990.

Woodward, Bob and Scott Armstrong. The Brethren. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979.

Yalof, David Alistair. Pursuit of Justices: Presidential Politics and the Selection of Supreme Court Nominees. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Materials Concerning Particular Cases or Subjects

Abraham, Henry Julian & Barbara A. Perry. Freedom and the Court: Civil Rights and Liberties in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 7th ed. 1998.

Alley, Robert S., ed. The Supreme Court on Church and State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Bybee, Keith J. Mistaken Identity: The Supreme Court and the Politics of Minority Representation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Campbell, Douglas S. Free Press v. Fair Trial: Supreme Court Decisions since 1807. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

Cortner, Richard C. The Supreme Court and the Second Bill of Rights: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Nationalization of Civil Liberties. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.

Devins, Neal E. Shaping Constitutional Values: Elected Government, the Supreme Court, and the Abortion Debate. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Fairman, Charles. Five Justices and the Electoral Commission of 1877. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988.

Faux, Marian. Roe v. Wade: The Untold Story of the Landmark Supreme Court Decision That Made Abortion Legal. New York: Macmillan, 1988.

Friendly, Fred W. Minnesota Rag: The Dramatic Story of the Landmark Supreme Court Case That Gave New Meaning to Freedom of the Press. New York: Random House, 1981.

Graglia, Lino A. Disaster by Decree: The Supreme Court Decisions on Race and the Schools. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1976.

Harrison, Maureen & Steve Gilbert, eds. Abortion Decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Excellent Books, 1993.

Howard, John R. The Shifting Wind: The Supreme Court and Civil Rights from Reconstruction to Brown. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Perry, Michael J. We the People: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Polenberg, Richard. Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech. New York: Viking, 1987.

Sabin, Arthur J. In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Schwartz, Bernard. Behind Bakke: Affirmative Action and the Supreme Court. New York: New York University Press, 1988.

———. Swann's Way: The School Busing Case and the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Shapiro, Ian, ed. Abortion: The Supreme Court Decisions. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett Publishing Company, 1995.

Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers. Paying the Words Extra: Religious Discourse in the Supreme Court of the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1994.

Westin, Alan F. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer: The Steel Seizure Decision. New York: Macmillan, 1958.

Wilkinson, J. Harvie. From Brown to Bakke: The Supreme Court and School Integration, 1954–1978. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Materials Concerning Individual Justices

Baldwin, Henry

Baldwin, Henry. A General View of the Origin and Nature of the Constitution and Government of the United States. 1837. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

Gattell, Frank Otto. "Henry Baldwin." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 1. Edited by L. Friedman and F. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Taylor, Flavia M. "The Political and Civil Career of Henry Baldwin." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 24 (1941): 37–50.

Barbour, Philip Pendleton

Cynn, Paul P. "Philip Pendleton Barbour." John P. Branch Historical Papers of Randolph-Macon College 4 (1913): 67–77.

Gatell, Frank Otto. "Philip Pendleton Barbour." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 1. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Black, Hugo Lafayette

Ball, Howard. Hugo L. Black: Cold Steel Warrior. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

———. "Justice Hugo L. Black: a Magnificent Product of the South." Alabama Law Review 363 (1985): 791–834.

———. The Vision and the Dream of Justice Hugo L. Black. University: University of Alabama Press, 1975.

Ball, Howard & Phillip J. Cooper. Of Power and Right: Hugo Black, William O. Douglas, and America's Constitutional Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Black, Elizabeth S. "Hugo Black: A Memorial Portrait." Supreme Court Historical Society. Yearbook (1982): 72–94.

Black, Hugo and Elizabeth. Mr. Justice Black and Mrs. Black, the Memoirs of Hugo L. Black and Elizabeth Black. New York: Random House, 1986.

Black, Hugo Jr. My Father, A Remembrance. New York: Random House, 1975.

Black, Hugo Lafayette. "Sincerely Your Friend" … Letters of Mr. Justice Hugo L. Black to Jerome A. Cooper. University: University of Alabama Press, 1973.

———. A Constitutional Faith. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968.

Dennis, Everette E., Donald M. Gillmor, David L. Grey. eds. Justice Hugo Black and the First Amendment: "'No Law' Means No Law." Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1978.

Dunne, Gerald T. Hugo Black and the Judicial Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1977.

Edleman, Peter B. "Press v. Privacy: Haunted by the Ghost of Justice Black." Texas Law Review 68 (May 1990): 1195–1234.

Frank, John Paul. Mr. Justice Black: The Man and His Opinions. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1948, Reprint 1977.

———. "The Shelf Life of Justice Hugo L. Black." Wisconsin Law Review (1997): 1–31.

Freyer, Tony and Oscar Handlin eds. Hugo L. Black and the Dilemma of American Liberalism. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education, 1990.

Freyer, Tony ed. Justice Hugo Black and Modern America. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990.

Hackney, Sheldon. "The Clay County Origins of Justice Black: the Populist as Insider." Alabama Law Review 36 (1985): 835–843.

Hamilton, Virginia Van der Veer. "Lister Hill, Hugo Black, and the Albatross of Race." Alabama Law Review 36 (1985): 845–860.

———. Hugo Black: The Alabama Years. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.

Hockett, Jeffrey D. New Deal Justice: The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Hugo L. Black, Felix Frankfurter, and Robert H. Jackson. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1996.

Magee, James J. Mr. Justice Black, Absolutist on the Court. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1980.

Massaro, Toni M. "Reviving Hugo Black? The Court's 'Jot for Jot' Account of Substantive Due Process." New York University Law Review 73 (1998): 1086–1121.

Mauney, Connie Pat. Justice Black and First Amendment Freedoms: Thirty-Four Influential Years. Emporia, Kan.: Emporia State University, 1986.

Mauney, Constance. "Religion and 1st Amendment Protections: An Analysis of Justice Black's Constitutional interpretation." Pepperdine Law Review (1983): 377–420.

Meador, Daniel J. Mr. Justice Black and His Books. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974.

Meese, Edwin. "A Tribute to Justice Hugo Black." Saint Louis University Public Law Review (1987): 187–195.

Newman, Roger K. "Black and Brown." University of San Francisco Law Review (1995): 635–644.

———. Hugo Black: A Biography. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Perry, Barbara A. "Justice Black and the 'Wall of Separation between Church and State.'" Journal of Church and State 31 (1989): 55–72.

Strickland, Stephen Parks, ed. Hugo Black and the Supreme Court: A Symposium. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

Thorton, Mills J. "Hugo Black and the Golden Age." Alabama Law Review 36 (1985): 899–913.

Warren, Earl. "A Tribute to Hugo L. Black." Harvard Law Review 85 (1971): 1–2.

Yarbrough, Tinsley E. Mr. Justice Black and His Critics. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1988.

Blackmun, Harry A.

"The Changing Social Vision of Justice Blackmun." Harvard Law Review 96 (1983): 717–736.

Cleghorn, Amy S. "Justice Harry A. Blackmun: A Retrospective Consideration of the Justice's Role in the Emancipation of Women." Seton Hall Law Review 25 (1995): 1176–1218.

Coyne, Randall. "Marking the Progress of a Humane Justice: Harry Blackmun's Death Penalty Epiphany." University of Kansas Law Review 43 (1995): 367–416.

Hair, Penda D. "Justice Blackmun and Racial Justice." Yale Law Journal 104 (1994): 7–22.

"In Memorium: Harry A. Blackmun." Harvard Law Review 113 (1999): 1–25.

"In Memoriam: Justice Harry A. Blackmun, Principle and Compassion." Columbia Law Review 99 (1999): x–1412.

King, Jeffrey B. "Now Turn to the Left: The Changing Ideology of Justice Harry A. Blackmun." Houston Law Review 33 (1996): 277–297.

Koh, Harold Hongju. "Justice Blackmun and the 'World out There.'" Yale Law Journal 104 (1994): 23–31.

"Symposium: The Jurisprudence of Justice Harry A. Blackmun." Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 26 (1998): 1–305.

Wasby, Stephen L. "Justice Harry A. Blackmun: Transformation from 'Minnesota Twin' to Independent Voice." In The Burger Court: Political and Judicial Profiles. Edited by Charles M. Lamb and Stephen C. Halpern. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Blair, John

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Hughes, Charles Evans

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Hunt, Ward

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Iredell, James

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Jackson, Howell Edmunds

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Jackson, Robert Houghwout

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Jay, John

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Johnson, Thomas

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Kennedy, Anthony M.

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Lamar, Joseph Rucker

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Livingston, Henry Brockholst

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Marshall, John

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Matthews, Stanley

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McKenna, Joseph

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McKinley, John

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McLean, John

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Miller, Samuel Freeman

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Minton, Sherman

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Simon, Paul. Advice & Consent: Clarence Thomas, Robert Bork, and the Intriguing History of the Supreme Court's Nomination Battles. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books, 1992.

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Gardner, Woodford L., Jr. "Kentucky Justices on the U.S. Supreme Court." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 70 (1972): 121–142.

Israel, Fred L. "Thomas Todd." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 1. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Levin, H. "Thomas Todd." In The Lawyers and Law Makers of Kentucky. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1897.

O'Rear, Edward C. "Justice Thomas Todd." Kentucky State Historical Society Record 38 (1940): 112–119.

Trimble, Robert

Goff, John S. "Mr Justice Trimble of the United States Supreme Court." Kentucky Historical Society Register 58 (1960): 6–28.

Israel, Fred L. "Robert Trimble." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 1. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Schneider, Alan N. "Robert Trimble: A Kentucky Justice on the Supreme Court." Kentucky State Bar Journal 12 (1947): 21–30.

Van Devanter, Willis

Burner, David. "Willis Van Devanter." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 3. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Cushman, Barry. "The Secret Lives of the Four Horsemen." Virginia Law Review 83 (1997): 559–645.

Holsinger, M. Paul. "The Appointment of Supreme Court Justice Van Devanter: A Study of Political Preferment." American Journal of Legal History 12 (1968): 324–335.

———. "Willis Van Devanter: Wyoming Leader, 1884–1897." Annals of Wyoming 37 (1965): 170–206.

Nelson, Daniel A. "The Supreme Court Appointment of Willis Van Devanter." Annals of Wyoming 53 (1981): 2–11.

Van Devanter, Willis. "Justice Van Devanter's Remarks to the Montana and Wyoming Bar Associations in 1937." Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook (1986): 64–76.

Vinson, Fred Moore

Bolner, James. "Mr. Chief Justice Vinson and the Communist Controversy: A Reassessment." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 66 (1968): 378–391.

Franck, Matthew J. "The Last Justice Without a Theory: Fred M. Vinson." In Sober as a Judge: The Supreme Court and Republican Liberty. Edited by Richard G. Stevens and Matthew J. Franck. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 1999.

Frank, John P. "Fred M. Vinson and the Chief Justiceship." University of Chicago Law Review 21 (1954): 212–46.

Langram, Robert W. "Why Are Some Supreme Court Justices Rates as 'Failures'?" Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook (1985): 8–14.

Lefberg, Irving F. "Chief Justice Vinson and the Politics of Desegregation." Emory Law Journal 24 (1975): 243–312.

Palmer, Jan S. The Vinson Court Era: The Supreme Court's Conference Votes: Data and Analysis. New York: AMS Press, 1990.

Pritchett, C. Herman. Civil Liberties and the Vinson Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.

Symposium. "In Memoriam: Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson." Northwestern University Law Review 49 (1954): 1–75.

Urofsky, Melvin I. Division and Discord: The Supreme Court under Stone and Vinson, 1941–1953. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.

Waite, Morrison Romick

Magrath, C. Peter. Morrison K. Waite: The Triumph of Character. New York: Macmillan, 1963.

Morris, Jeffrey Brandon. "Morrison Waite's Court." In Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook, 1980. Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court Historical Society, 1980.

Stephenson, D. Grier, Jr. "The Chief Justice as Leader: The Case of Morrison Remick Waite." William and Mary Law Review 14 (1973): 899–927.

Trimble, Bruce Raymond. Chief Justice Waite, Defender of the Public Interest. 1938. Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell, 1970.

Warren, Earl

Cray, Ed. Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Horwitz, Morton J. The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

Kurland, Philip B. Politics, the Constitution, and the Warren Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Lewis, Frederick P. The Context of Judicial Activism: The Endurance of the Warren Court Legacy in a Conservative Age. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Pollack, Jack Harrison. Earl Warren: The Judge Who Changed America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1979.

Schwartz, Bernard. Inside the Warren Court. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983.

———. Super Chief: Earl Warren and His Supreme Court. New York: New York University Press, 1983.

Schwartz, Bernard, ed. The Warren Court: A Retrospective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Tushnet, Mark, ed. The Warren Court in Historical and Political Perspective. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Warren, Earl. The Memoirs of Earl Warren. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1977.

———. The Public Papers of Chief Justice Earl Warren. Edited by Henry M. Christman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1959.

White, G. Edward. Earl Warren: A Public Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Washington, Bushrod

Binney, Horace. Bushrod Washington. Philadelphia: C. Sherman & Son, 1858.

Blaustein, Albert P. and Roy M. Mersky. "Bushrod Washington." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 1. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.

Stoner, James R. Jr., "Heir Apparent: Bushrod Washington and Federal Justice in the Early Republic." In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall. Edited by Scott Douglas Gerber. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Wayne, James Moore

Battle, George G. "James Moore Wayne: Southern Unionist." Fordham Urban Law Journal 14 (1964): 42–59.

Lawrence, Alexander A. James Moore Wayne, Southern Unionist. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1943; Reprint 1970.

O'Connor, Sandra Day. "Supreme Court Justices from Georgia." The Georgia Journal of Southern Legal History 1 (Fall-Winter 1991): 395–405.

White, Byron Raymond

Hutchinson, Dennis J. The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White: A Portrait of Justice Byron R. White. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Ides, Allan. "The Jurisprudence of Justice Byron White." Yale Law Journal 103 (1993): 419–461.

Kramer, Daniel C. "Justice Byron R. White: Good Friend to Polity and Solon." In The Burger Court: Political and Judicial Profiles. Edited by Charles M. Lamb and Stephen C. Halpern. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Lee, Rex E. "On Greatness and Constitutional Vision: Justice Byron R. White." Journal of Supreme Court History (1993): 5–10.

Nelson, William E. "Justice Byron R. White: A Modern Federalist and a New Deal Liberal." Brigham Young University Law Review (1994): 313–348.

"A Tribute to Justice Byron R. White." Harvard Law Review 107 (1993): xii–26.

"A Tribute to Justice Byron R. White." Yale Law Journal 103 (1993): 1–56.

White, Edward Douglass

Cassidy, Lews C. "An Evaluation of Chief Justice White." Mississippi Law Journal 10 (1938): 136–153.

Fegin, Hugh E. "Edward Douglass White, Jurist and Statesman." Georgetown Law Journal 14 (1925): 1–21; and 15 (1926): 148–168.

Highsaw, Robert Baker. Edward Douglass White: Defender of the Conservative Faith. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Stevens, Dennis G. "Constitutional Jurisprudence at the Crossroads: Edward Douglass White." In Sober as a Judge: The Supreme Court and Republican Liberty. Edited by Richard G. Stevens and Matthew J. Franck. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 1999.

Whittaker, Charles Evans

Berman, D.M. "Mr. Justice Whittaker: A Preliminary Appraisal." Missouri Law Review 24 (1959): 1–15.

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Wilson, James

Conrad, Stephen A. "The Rhetorical Constitution of Civil Society at the Founding: One Lawyer's Anxious Vision." Indiana Law Journal 72 (1997): 335–373.

———. "James Wilson's 'Assimilation of the Common-Law Mind.'" Northwestern University Law Review 84 (1989): 186–219.

———. "Metaphor and Imagination in James Wilson's Federal Union." Law and Social Inquiry 13 (1988): 1–70.

———. "Polite Foundation: Citizenship and Common Sense in James Wilson's Republican Theory." Supreme Court Review (1984): 359–388.

Frohnen, Bruce. "The Bases of Professional Responsibility: Pluralism and Community in Early America." George Washington Law Review 63 (1995): 931–954.

Hall, Mark David. The Political and Legal Philosophy of James Wilson 1742–1798. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

———. "James Wilson: Democratic Theorist and Supreme Court Justice." In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall. Edited by Scott Douglas Gerber. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

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Pascal, Jean M. The Political Ideas of James Wilson, 1742–1798. New York: Garland Publishing, 1991.

Smith, Page. James Wilson, Founding Father, 1741–1798. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1956.

Wilson, James. The Works of James Wilson, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States … Being His Public Discourses Upon Jurisprudence and the Political Science, Including Lectures as Professor of Law, 1790–2. Edited by James DeWitt Andrews. Chicago: Callaghan and Company, 1896.

Woodbury, Levi

Bader, William D., Henry J. Abraham, and James B. Staab. "The Jurisprudence of Levi Woodbury." Vermont Law Review (1994): 261–312.

Woodbury, Charles Levi. Memoir of Honorable Levi Woodbury, LL.D. Boston: David Clapp and Son, 1894.

Woodbury, Levi. Writings of Levi Woodbury, LL.D., Political, Judicial and Literary. Boston: Little, Brown, 1852.

Woods, William Burnham

Baynes, Thomas E. "A Search for Justice Woods: Yankee from Georgia." Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook, 1978. Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court Historical Society, 1978.

Filler, Louis. "William B. Woods." In The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions, vol. 2. Edited by Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1969.


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Vice Presidents [Updated Edition]

Alotta, Robert I. #2: A Look at the Vice Presidency. New York: Julian Messner, 1981.

Barzman, Sol. Madmen and Geniuses: The Vice Presidents of the United States. Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1974.

Biographical Directory of the American Con-gress, 1774–1971. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.

Byrne, Gary C., and Paul Marx. The Great American Convention: A Political History of Presidential Elections~?[sic], italics off~. Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books, 1976.

Cleere, Gail S. The House on Observatory Hill: Home of the Vice Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Navy, 1989; reprinted, Diane Publish-ing Co., 1993.

Curtis, Richard, and Maggie Wells. Not Exactly a Crime: Our Vice Presidents from Adams to Agnew. New York: Dial Press, 1972.

Diller, Daniel C., and Stephen L. Robertson. The Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1989.

Di Salle, Michael V., and Lawrence G. Blockman. Second Choice. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1966.

Dorman, Michael. The Second Man. New York: Delacorte Press, 1968.

Dunlap, Leslie W. Our Vice Presidents and Sec-ond Ladies. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1988.

Durbin, Thomas M., and Michael V. Seitzin-ger. Nomination and Election of the President and Vice President of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980.

Greenstein, Fred S., et al. Evolution of the Modern Presidency: A Bibliographic Survey. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1977. (Chap. 19)

Goldstein, Joel K. The Modern Vice Presidency: The Transformation of a Political Institution. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Harwood, Michael. In the Shadow of the Presidents. New York: J.B. Lippincott, 1966.

Hatch, Louis C., and Earl L. Shoup. A History of the Vice Presidency of the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970.

Healy, Diana Dixon. America's Vice-Presidents. New York: Atheneum, 1989.

Hoopes, Roy. The Changing Vice-Presidency. New York: Crowell, 1981.

Kane, Joseph N. Facts About the Presidents. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1989.

Lanman, Charles. Biographical Annals of the Civil Government of the U.S. during Its First Century. Washington, D.C.: 1876; reprinted, Gale Publishing, 1976.

Levin, Peter. Seven By Chance: The Accidental Presidents. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Co., 1948.

Levy, Leonard W., and Lewis Fisher, eds. The Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

Light, Paul C. Vice Presidential Power: Advice and Influence in the White House. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.

Natoli, Marie D. American Prince, American Pauper: The Contemporary Vice Presidency in Perspective. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Nelson, Michael. A Heartbeat Away. New York: Priority Press Publications, 1988.

Schindler, Allan P. Unchosen Presidents: The Vice-Presidency and Other Frustrations of Presidential Succession. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1976.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., and Fred L. Israel, eds. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–1968. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1971.

Sobel, Robert, ed. Biographical Dictionary of the U.S. Executive Branch, 1774–1989. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Southwick, Leslie. Presidential Also Rans and Running Mates, 1788–1996. Jefferson, N.C.: MacFarland & Co., 1998.

Tally, Steve. Bland Ambition: From Adams to Quayle—The Cranks, Criminals, Tax Cheats, and Golfers Who Made It to the Vice Presidency. San Diego, Calif.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.

Vexler, Robert I. The Vice-Presidents and Cabinet Members: Biographies Arranged Chronologically by Administrations. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1975.

Waldrup, Carole Chandler. The Vice Presidents: Biographies of the 45 Men Who Have Held the Second Highest Office in the Land. Jefferson, N.C.: MacFarland & Co., 1996.

Waugh, Edgar W. Second Consuls: The Vice Presidency; Our Greatest Political Problem. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956.

Williams, Irving G. The Rise of the Vice Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1956.

Witcover, Jules. Crapshoot: Rolling the Dice on the Vice-Presidency. New York: Crown, 1992.

Young, Donald. American Roulette: The History and Dilemma of the Vice Presidency. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965.

Young, Klyde, and Lamar Middleton. Heirs Apparent: The Vice Presidents of the United States. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1969.


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Encyclopedia of Battles in North America

General

Alexander, Joseph H. A Fellowship of Valor: The Battle History of the United States Marines. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Deaderick, John Barron. Campaigns and Battles of America, 1755–1865: Fort Duquesne to Appomattox. Boston: Christopher, 1959.

Dupuy, R. Ernest, and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History. 2d ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Esposito, Vincent J., ed. The West Point Atlas of American Wars. Rev. ed. Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.

Fuller, J. F. C. Decisive Battles of the U.S.A. New York: Beechurst Press, 1953.

Heitman, Francis G. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army . . . 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914.

Perrett, Bryan. The Battle Book: Crucial Conflicts in History from 1469 to the Present. New York: Arms and Armour, 1992.

Stevens, Joseph E. America's Battlefield Parks: A Guide. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

The Colonial Wars

Alberts, Robert C. A Charming Field for an Encounter: The Story of George Washington's Fort Necessity. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975.

Arnade, Charles, W. The Siege of St. Augustine in 1702. Gainesville: University of Florida Presses, 1959.

Baker, Raymond F. A Campaign of Amateurs: The Siege of Louisbourg, 1745. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1995.

Bennet, Charles E. Laudonniere and Fort Caroline: History and Documents. Gainesville: University of Florida Presses, 1964.

Brebner, John B. New England's Outpost: Acadia before the Conquest of Canada. Reprint ed. New York: B. Franklin, 1973.

Cowan, John P. "George Washington at Fort Necessity." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 37, nos. 3 and 4 (1955): 12–14, 92–111.

Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier, 1670–1732. Reprint ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981.

Donaldson, Gordon. Battle for a Continent: Quebec, 1759. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1973.

Dunigan, Brian Leigh. Siege—1759: The Campaign against Niagara. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1986.

———. "Vauban in the Wilderness: The Siege of Fort Niagara, 1759." Niagara Frontier 21 (1974): 37–52.

Eccles, W. J. "The Battle of Quebec: A Reappraisal." French Colonial Historical Society Proceedings 3, no. 1 (1978): 70–81.

Ferling, John. Struggle for a Continent: The Wars of the Colonial Age. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1993.

Fiedmont, Jacau de. The Siege of Beausejour in 1755: A Journal of the Attack on Beausejour. Saint John, Canada: n.p., 1936.

Gallay, Alan. Colonial Wars of North America, 1512–1763: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1996.

Georgia Historical Society. The Spanish Official Account of the Attack on the Colony of Georgia, in America, and of Its Defeat on St. Simons Island by James Oglethorpe. Savannah, Ga.: Savannah Morning News, 1913.

Godfrey, William G. Pursuit of Profit and Preferment in Colonial North America: John Bradstreet's Quest. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1982.

Graham, Dominick. "The Planning of the Beauséjour Operation and the Approaches to War in 1755." New England Quarterly 41 (1968): 551–566.

Grinnell-Milne, Duncan William. Mad, Is He? The Character and Achievement of James Wolfe. London: Bodley Head, 1963.

Hamilton, Edward P. Fort Ticonderoga, Key to a Continent. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964.

———. The French and Indian Wars: The Story of Battles and Forts in the Wilderness. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1962.

Hindman, William B. The Great Meadows Campaign and the Climactic Battle of Fort Necessity. Leesburg, Va.: Potomac Press, 1967.

Hitsman, J. Mackay, and C. C. J. Bond. "The Assault Landing at Louisbourg, 1758." Canadian Historical Review 35, no. 4 (December 1954): 314–330.

Kopperman, Paul E. Braddock at the Monongahela. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.

Lacock, John K. Washington's Military Expedition of 1754. Farmington, Pa.: Fort Necessity Battlefield Site, 1940.

Lloyd, Christopher. The Capture of Quebec. London: Batsford, 1959.

Lyon, Eugene. The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the Spanish Conquest of 1565–1568. Gainesville: University of Florida Presses, 1976.

———, ed. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. New York: Garland, 1995.

Martin, Ronald D. "Confrontation at the Monongahela: Climax of the French Drive into the Upper Ohio Region." Pennsylvania History 37 (1946): 133–150.

Mathieu, Jacques, Eugen Kedl, and Kathe Roth, trans. The Plains of Abraham: The Search for the Ideal. Sillery, Quebec: Septentrion, 1993.

McLennan, John Stewart. Louisbourg from Its Foundation to Its Fall, 1713–1758. 4th ed. Halifax, Canada: Book Room, 1979.

O'Meara, Walter. Guns at the Forks. Englewoods Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.

Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe. Reprint ed. New York: F. Ungar, 1965.

Paterson, T. W. "Siege at the Long Sault." Canadian West 6, no. 3 (1990): 114–118.

Peckham, Howard. The Colonial Wars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Preston, R. A., ed. Royal Fort Frontenac. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1958.

Pother, Bernard. "The Siege of Annapolis Royal." Nova Scotia Historical Review 5, no. 1 (1985): 59–71.

Pouchot, Pierre. Memoirs on the Late War in North America between France and England. Michael Cardy, trans. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1994.

Rahmer, Frederick A. Dash to Frontenac: An Account of Lt. Col. John Bradstreet's Expedition to and Capture of Fort Frontenac. Rome, N.Y.: n.p., 1973.

Rawlyk, George A. Yankees at Louisbourg. Orono: University of Maine Press, 1967.

Reid, W. Max. Lake George and Lake Champlain: The War Trail of the Mohawk and the Battle-Ground of France and England in their Contest for the Control of North America. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1910.

Smith Henry M. "Fort Necessity." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 41 (1933): 204–214.

Steele, Ian K. Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the Massacre. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Tilberg, Frederick. Fort Necessity National Battlefield Site, Pennsylvania. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: National Parks Service, 1956.

Torres-Reyes, Ricardo. The British Siege of St. Augustine in 1740. Denver: National Park Service, 1973.

Webster, John Clarence. The Forts of Chignecto: A Study of the Eighteenth Century Conflict between France and Great Britain in Acadia. n.p.: author, 1930.

———. Journals of Beausejour. Sackville, Canada: Tribune Press, 1937.

The Indian Wars

Anderson, Niles. The Battle of Bushy Run. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1966.

Baker, T. Lindsay, and Billy R. Harrison. Adobe Walls: The History and Archaeology of the 1874 Trading Post. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1986.

Ball, E. "Cibicu—An Apache Interpretation" in Ray Brandes, ed. Troopers West: Military and Indian Affairs on the American Frontier. San Diego: Frontier Heritage Press, 1970.

The Battles of Adobe Walls and Lyman's Wagon Train, 1874. Canyon, Tex.: Panhandle-Plains Historical Society, 1964.

Beal, Merrill D. "I Will Fight No More Forever": Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce War. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1963.

Bourne, Russell. The Red King's Rebellion: Racial Politics in New England, 1675–1678. New York: Atheneum, 1990.

Brown, Dee A. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Holt Rinehart, 1970.

———. The Fetterman Massacre: An American Saga. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Brown, Mark H. The Flight of the Nez Perce: A History of the Nez Perce War. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1967; Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Carley, Kenneth. The Sioux Uprising of 1862. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1976.

Carrington, Henry Beebe. The Indian Question: Including a Report by the Secretary of the Interior on the Massacre of Troops near Fort Kearney, December 1866. New York: Lewis, 1973.

Carter, Harvey. The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Chaney, George P., Robert C. Betts, and Dee Longenbaugh. Physical and Cultural Landscapes of Sitka National Historical Park. Douglas, Alaska: Vanguard Research, 1995.

Cleaves, Freeman. Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Times. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939.

Cook, David C. Fighting Indians of America. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1966.

Davies, Nigel. The Aztecs: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Debo, Angie. Road to Disappearance: A History of the Creek Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745–1815. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Dowd, James. Custer Lives! Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1982.

Drake, James D. King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Amherst, Mass: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000.

Dunn, William R. I Stand by Sand Creek: A Defense of Colonel John M. Chivington and the Third Colorado Cavalry. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Eby, Cecil. "That Disgraceful Affair," The Black Hawk War. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973.

Edmunds, R. David. The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Finerty, John. War-Path and Bivouac or the Conquest of the Sioux. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

Forsyth, George A. Thrilling Days in Army Life. Reprint ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Fox, Richard Allan Jr. Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Gardiner, C. Harvey. Naval Power in the Conquest of Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1956.

Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1964.

Gilbert, Bill. God Gave Us This Country: Tekamthi and the First American Civil War. New York: Atheneum, 1989.

Glassley, Ray Hoard. Pacific Northwest Indian Wars. Portland, Ore.: Binfords & Mort, 1953.

Goodrich, Thomas. Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865–1879. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole, 1997.

Gray, John S. Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876. Fort Collins, Colo.: Old Army Press, 1976.

———. Custer's Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Greene, Jerome. Slim Buttes, 1876: An Episode of the Great Sioux War. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.

———. Yellowstone Command: Colonel Nelson A. Miles, and the Great Sioux War, 1876–1877. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Grinnell, George Bird. The Fighting Cheyennes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956.

Gruzinski, Serge. The Aztecs: Rise and Fall of an Empire. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992.

Haines, Aubrey L. An Elusive Victory: The Battle of Big Hole. West Glacier, Mont.: Glacier Natural History Association, 1991.

Haley, James L. Apaches: A History and Culture Portrait. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997.

Hampton, Bruce. Children of Grace: The Nez Perce War of 1877. New York: Henry Holt, 1994.

Hardorff, Richard G. Cheyenne Memories of the Custer Fight: A Source Book. Spokane, Wash.: Arthur H. Clark, 1995.

Hart, Newell. The Bear River Massacre: Being a Complete Sourcebook and Storybook of the Genocidal Action against the Shoshones in 1863. 2d ed. Preston, Idaho: Cache Valley Newsletter, 1982.

Hauptman, Lawrence M., and James D. Wherry. The Pequots in Southern New England: The Rise and Fall of an American Indian Nation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Old Hickory's War: Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1996.

Hoig, Stan. The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Horowitz, David. The First Frontier: The Indian Wars and America's Origins, 1607–1776. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

Hurt, Douglas R. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720–1830. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Jackson, Donald, ed. Black Hawk: An Autobiography. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964.

Jennings, Francis. The Founders of America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.

———. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. Chapel Hill.: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

Keenan, Jerry. Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492–1890. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC Clio, 1997.

Keim, DeB. Randolph. Sheridan's Troopers on the Border: A Winter Campaign on the Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Kelly, Luther S. Yellowstone Kelly: The Memoirs of Luther S. Kelly. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.

Kessell, John L. Kiva, Cross, and Crown: The Pecos Indians and New Mexico, 1540–1840. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1990.

Kip, Lawrence. Army Life on the Pacific: A Journal. Reprint ed. Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1986.

Knaut, Andrew L. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680: Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth-Century New Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Laumer, Frank. Dade's Last Command. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1995.

———. Massacre! Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968.

Leach, Douglas Edward. Arms for Empire: A Military History of the British Colonies in North America, 1607–1763. New York: Macmillan, 1973.

———. Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip's War. New York: Macmillan, 1958.

Lewis, Virgil Anson. History of the Battle of Point Pleasant. Charleston, W. Va.: Tribune Printing, 1909.

Libby, Orin Grant. The Arikara Narrative of the Campaign against the Hostile Dakotas, June, 1876. Glorieta, N. Mex.: Rio Grande Press, 1976.

Longstreet, Stephen. Indian Wars of the Great Plains. New York: Indian Head Books, 1970.

Madariaga, Salvador de. Hernan Cortés, Conqueror of Mexico. Reprint ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Madsen, Brigham D. The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1985.

Mangum, Neil C. The Battle of the Rosebud: Prelude to the Little Bighorn. El Segundo, Calif.: Upton and Sons, 1987.

Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War, 1835–1842. Gainesville: University of Florida Presses, 1967.

Marshall, S. L. A. Crimsoned Prairie: The Indian Wars of the Great Plains. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972.

Martin, Joel W. Sacred Revolt: The Muskogees' Struggle for a New World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1991.

McDermott, John D. Forlorn Hope: The Battle of White Bird Canyon and the Beginning of the Nez Perce War. Boise, Idaho: State Historical Society, 1978.

———. "We Had a Terribly Hard Time Letting Them Go." Nebraska History 77, no. 2 (1996): 78–88.

Melvoin, Richard I. New England Outpost: War and Society in Colonial Deerfield. New York: W. W. Norton, 1989.

Mendoza, Patrick M. Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek. Denver: Willow Wind, 1993.

Monnett, John H. The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867–1869. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1992.

Murphy, John A. Harmar's Defeat: Letters, Journals, and Narratives. Pataskala, Ohio: Brockston, 1990.

Murray, Keith. The Modocs and Their War, 1959. Reprint ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. Struggle for the Gulf Borderlands: The Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812–1815. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1981.

Palmer, Dave R. 1794: America, Its Army, and the Birth of the Nation. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1994.

Patterson, T. W. "Siege at the Long Sault." Canada West 6, no. 3 (1990): 114–118.

Paul, R. Eli, ed. "Battle of Ash Hollow: The 1909–1910 Recollections of General N. A. M. Dudley." Nebraska History 62, no. 3 (1981): 373–399.

Peckham, Howard H. Pontiac and the Indian Uprising. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994.

Pfaler, Louis. "The Sully Expedition of 1864." North Dakota History 31 (1964): 1–54.

Powell, William S. "The Aftermath of the Massacre." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 66 (1958): 44–75.

Prescott, William H. History of the Conquest of Mexico, and The History of the Conquest of Peru. New York: Modern Library, 1936.

Price, George F. Across the Continent with the Fifth Cavalry. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1959.

Prucha, Paul. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783–1846. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969.

Putnam, Charles. "Incidents of the Modoc War." Journal of the Shaw Historical Library 1, no. 2 (1987): 1–12.

Quinn, Arthur. Hell with the Fire Out: A History of the Modoc War. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1997.

Reber, Bruce, comp. The United States Army and the Indian Wars in the Trans-Mississippi West: 1860–1898. Carlisle Barrack, Pa.: U.S. Army Military Institute, 1978.

Riddle, Jeff. The Indian History of the Modoc War and the Causes That Led to It. Medford, Ore.: Pine Cone, 1973.

Roundtree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Russell, Don. The Lives and Legends of Buffalo Bill. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960.

Sandoz, Mari. The Battle of Little Bighorn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966.

Schultz, Duane. Month of the Freezing Moon: The Sand Creek Massacre, November 1864. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.

Scott, Robert A. Chief Joseph and the Nez Percés. New York: Facts On File, 1993.

Sprague, Marshall. Massacre: The Tragedy at White River. Boston: Little Brown, 1957.

Steele, Ian K. Warpaths: Invasions of North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Stewart, Edgar. Custer's Luck. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956.

Stuart, John. Memoir of the Indian Wars, and Other Occurrences. Reprint ed. New York: New York Times, 1971.

Sully, Langdon. No Tears for the General: The Life of Alfred Sully, 1821–1879. Palo Alto, Calif.: American West, 1974.

Sword, Wiley. President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790–1895. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Tebbel, John W., and Keith Jennison. American Indian Wars. New York: Harper, 1960.

Thomas, Hugh. Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés, and the Fall of Old Mexico. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.

Thompson, Erwin. Modoc War: Its Military History and Topography. Sacramento, Calif.: Argus Books, 1971.

Utley, Robert M. Cavalier in Buckskin: George Armstrong Custer and the Western Military Frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

———. Custer and the Great Controversy: The Origin and Development of a Legend. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988.

———. Custer Battlefield: A History and Guide to the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1988.

———. Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866–1891. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

———. Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848–1865. New York: Macmillan, 1962.

———. Last Days of the Sioux Nation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1963.

Utley, Robert M., and Wilcomb E. Washburn. The American Heritage History of the Indian Wars. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1977.

Ware, Eugene F. The Indian War of 1864. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Welch, James, and Paul Stekler. Killing Custer: The Little Big Horn and the Fate of the Native Americans. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.

White, Lonnie J., ed. Hostiles and Horse Soldiers: Indian Battles and Campaigns in the West. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett, 1972.

Wooster, Donald E. Nelson A. Miles and the Twilight of the Frontier Army. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

The American Revolution

Abbatt, William. The Battle of Pell's Point (or Pelham) October 18, 1776. New York: W. Abbatt, 1901.

Allen, Gardiner W. A Naval History of the American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Russell and Russell, 1962.

Arthur, Robert. The End of a Revolution. New York: Vantage Press, 1966.

Baker, Thomas E. Another Such Victory: The Story of the American Defeat at Guilford Courthouse That Helped Win the War for Independence. New York: Eastern Acorn Press, 1981.

Bayley, John. In Another Country. Reprint ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Berg, Richard H. "The Southern Campaigns: The British Effort to Retake the South, 1778–1781." Strategy and Tactics, no. 104 (1985): 14–23.

Bill, Alfred Hoyt. The Campaign of Princeton, 1776–1777. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1948.

Bird, Harrison. Attack on Quebec: The American Invasion of Canada, 1775. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: David McKay, 1966.

Brownlow, Donald G. A Documentary History of the Paoli "Massacre," 1952. 2d ed. West Chester, Pa.: Horace F. Temple, 1977.

Buchanan, John. The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

Butterfield, Consul Willshire. An Historical Account of the Expedition against Sandusky under Col. William Crawford in 1782. Cincinnati: R. Clarke, 1873.

Byrd, Martha. Saratoga: Turning Point in the American Revolution. Philadelphia: Auerbach, 1973.

Campbell, William V. Annals of Tyron County, or, The Border Warfare of New York, during the Revolution. 4th ed. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1924.

Canby, Henry Seidel. The Brandywine. Reprint ed. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1941.

Clarke, Ernest. The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776: An Episode in the American Revolution. Buffalo, N.Y.: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.

Coburn, Frank Warren. The Centennial History of the Battle of Bennington. Boston: G. E. Littlefield, 1877.

Cooch, Edward W. The Battle of Cooch's Bridge, Delaware, September 3, 1777. Wilmington, Del.: W. N. Cann, 1940.

Cook, Fred J. Dawn over Saratoga: The Turning Point of the Revolutionary War. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1973.

Davis, Burke. The Campaign That Won America: The Story of Yorktown. New York: Dial Press, 1970.

———. The Cowpens-Guilford Courthouse Campaign. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1962.

Davis, Robert S. Georgians in the Revolution: at Kettle Creek (Wilkes Co.) and Burke County. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1986.

Davis, Robert S., and Kenneth H. Thomas. Kettle Creek: The Battle of the Cane Brakes. Atlanta: Department of Natural Resources, 1975.

Davis, T. E. The Battle of Bound Brook, 1895. Reprint ed. Bound Brook, N.J.: Washington Camp Ground Association, 1981.

DeCosta, B. F. Notes on the History of Fort George during the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods. New York: J. Sabin & Sons, 1871.

Dorwart, Jeffrey, M. Fort Mifflin of Philadelphia: An Illustrated History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Draper, Lyman C. King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It. Reprint ed. Spartansburg, S.C.: Reprint, 1967.

Dupuy, Trevor N., and Gay M. Hammerman. The Military History of Revolutionary War Land Battles. New York: Watts, 1970.

Dwyer, William H. The Day Is Ours! November 1776–January 1777: An Inside View of the Battles of Trenton and Princeton. New York: Viking Press, 1983.

Edgar, Gregory T. Reluctant Break with Britain: From Stamp Act to Bunker Hill. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1997.

Elting, John R. The Battle of Bunker's Hill. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1975.

Fisher, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Fleming, Thomas. The Battle of Springfield. Trenton: New Jersey Historical Society, 1975.

———. Beat the Last Drum: The Siege of Yorktown, 1781. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1963.

———. Cowpens: "Downright Fighting": The Story of Cowpens. Washington, D.C.: National Parks Service, 1988.

———. The First Stroke: Lexington, Concord, and the Beginning of the American Revolution. Washington, D.C.: National Parks Service, 1978.

———. Now We Are Enemies: The Story of Bunker Hill. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1960.

Fletcher, Ebenezer. The Narrative of Ebenezer Fletcher, a Soldier of the Revolution, Written by Himself. 4th ed. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

Fowler, William M., Jr. Rebels under Sail: The American Navy during the Revolution. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976.

Flood, Charles B. Rise, and Fight Again: Perilous Times along the Road to Independence. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1976.

Futhey, J. Smith. The Massacre of Paoli, 1877. Philadelphia: J. Carbutt, 1990.

Galvez, Bernardo de. Yo Solo: The Battle Journal of Bernardo de Galvez during the American Revolution. Eric Beerman, trans. New Orleans: Polyanthos, 1978.

Galvin, John R. The Minute Men: The First Fight: Myths and Realities of the American Revolution. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense, 1989.

Hall, Edward H. Stoney Point Battle-Field: A Sketch of Its Revolutionary History. New York: American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, 1902.

Hamilton, Edward Pierce. Fort Ticonderoga, Key to a Continent. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964.

Harrison, Lowell. George Rogers Clark and the War in the West. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1976.

Hatch, Robert McConnell. Thrust for Canada: The American Attempt on Quebec in 1775–1776. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

Heidler, David S. "The American Defeat at Briar Creek." Georgia Historical Quarterly 66, no. 3 (1982): 317–331.

Henry, Robert. Narrative of the Battle of Cowan's Ford, February 1st, 1781. Greensboro, N.C.: Reece & Elam, 1891.

Hough, Franklin Benjamin. The Siege of Charleston, by the British Fleet and Army under the Command of Admiral Arbuthnot and Sir Henry Clinton, which terminated with the surrender of that place on the 12th of May, 1780. Spartansburg, S.C.: Reprint, 1975.

Jackson, John W. With the British Army in Philadelphia, 1777–1778. San Rafael, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1979.

Johnston, Henry Phelps. The Battle of Harlem Heights, September 16, 1776. New York: Macmillan for Columbia University Press, 1897.

Judd, Jacob. Fort Lee on the Palisades: The Battle for the Hudson. Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1963.

Kennedy, Benjamin, ed. Musket, Cannon Balls and Bombs: Nine Narratives of the Siege of Savannah in 1779. Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1974.

Ketchum, Richard M. Decisive Day: The Battle for Bunker Hill. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.

———. Saratoga: Turning Point of America"s Revolutionary War. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

Killion, Ronald G., and Charles T. Waller. Georgia and the Revolution. Atlanta: Cherokee, 1975.

Lanctot, Gustave. Canada and the American Revolution, 1774–1783. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Lawrence, Alexander A. Storm over Savannah: The Story of Count d'Estaing and the Siege of the Town in 1779. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1951.

Leslie, Vernon E. The Battle of Minisink: A Revolutionary War Engagement in the Upper Delaware Valley. 2d ed. Middletown, N. Y.: T. E. Henderson, 1976.

Lumpkin, Henry. "The Battle off the Capes." Virginia Cavalcade 31, no. 2 (1981): 68–77.

Lundberg, Philip K. The Continental Gunboat Philadelphia and the Northern Campaign of 1776. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1966.

Lundin, Leonard. Cockpit of the Revolution: The War for Independence in New Jersey. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940.

Macaltioner, George B. 150th Anniversary of the Skirmish at Quinton's Bridge and the Massacre at Hancock's Bridge. Salem, N.J.: Sunbeam, 1928.

MacWethy, Lou D. The Battle of Klock's Field, October 19, 1780. St. Johnsville, N.Y.: Enterprise and News, 1930.

Manders, Eric I. The Battle of Long Island. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1978.

McCusker, John J. Alfred: The First Continental Flagship, 1775–1778. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, no. 20, 1973.

McDevitt, Robert F. Connecticut Attacked, a British Viewpoint: Tyron's Raid on Danbury. Chester, Conn.: Pequot Press, 1974.

McGuire, Thomas J. The Surprise of Germantown, or, The Battle of Cliveden: October 4th, 1777. Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1994.

Merrill, Arthur A. The Battle of White Plains. Chappaqua, N.Y.: Analysis Press, 1995.

Messick, Hank. King's Mountain: The Epic of the Blue Ridge "Mountain Men" in the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.

Morrill, Dan L. Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation, 1993.

Morrison, James F. The Battle of Johnstown, October 25th, 1781. n.p.: Third Battalion of Tryon County, 1991.

Nadelhaft, Jerome J. The Disorders of War: The Revolution in South Carolina. Orono: University of Maine at Orono Press, 1981.

O'Brien, Michael Joseph. The Irish at Bunker Hill. Shannon, Ireland: Irish University Press, 1968.

Pancake, John S. This Destructive War: The British Campaign in the Carolinas. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1985.

Papers Relating to the Surrender of Fort St. Johns and Fort Chambly. Toronto: Canadiana House, 1971.

Pickens, Andrew Lee. Skyagunsta: The Border Wizard Owl, Major-General Andrew Pickens. Greenville, S.C.: Observer, 1934.

Purcell, L. Edward. Who Was Who in the American Revolution. New York: Facts On File, 1993.

Rankin, Hugh F. Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox. New York: Thomas Crowell, 1973.

———. Greene and Cornwallis: The Campaign in the Carolinas. Raleigh, N.C.: Dept. of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 1976.

———. The Moore's Creek Bridge Campaign, 1776. Conshohocken, Pa.: Eastern Parks and Monuments Association, 1986.

Rathbun, Jonathan. The Narrative of Jonathan Rathbun, of the Capture of Fort Griswold, the Massacre That Followed, and the Burning of New London, Conn. Reprint ed. New York: W. Abbatt, 1911.

Richardson, William H. Washington and "The Enterprise against Powles Hook." A New Study of the Surprise and Capture of the Fort, Thursday, August 19, 1779. Jersey City: New Jersey Title Guarantee and Trust, 1929.

Roberts, Kenneth. The Battle of Cowpens: The Great Morale-Builder. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958.

Roberts, Robert B. New York's Forts in the Revolution. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Press, 1980.

Rush, Nixon Orwin. The Battle of Pensacola, March 9 to May 8, 1781: Spain's Final Triumph over Great Britain in the Gulf of Mexico. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1966.

Sands, John O. Yorktown's Captive Fleet. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983.

Scott, John Albert. Fort Stanwix (Fort Schuyler) and Oriskany: The Romantic Story of the Repulse of St. Leger's British Invasion of 1777. Rome, N.Y.: Rome Sentinel, 1927.

Servies, James A., ed. The Log of H.M.S. Mentor, 1780–1781: A New Account of the British Navy at Pensacola. Pensacola: University Presses of Florida, 1982.

Shafroth, J. F. The Strategy of the Yorktown Campaign, 1781. Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute, 1931.

Shelton, Hal T. General Richard Montgomery and the American Revolution: From Redcoat to Rebel. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

Shepherd, William R. The Battle of Harlem Heights. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1898.

Sklarsky, I. W. The Revolution's Boldest Venture: The Story of General "Mad Anthony" Wayne's Assault on Stony Point. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1965.

Smith, Ernest G. The Sesqui-Centennial of the Battle of Wyoming. Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 1928.

Smith, Page. A New Age Now Begins: A People's History of the American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: McGraw Hill, 1976.

Smith, Samuel Stelle. The Battle of Brandywine. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1976.

———. The Battle of Monmouth. Trenton: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1975.

———. The Battle of Princeton. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1967.

———. The Battle of Trenton. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1965.

Spargo, John. The Bennington Battle Monument: Its Story and Its Meaning. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle, 1925.

Standard, Janet H. The Battle of Kettle Creek: A Turning Point of the American Revolution in the South. Washington, Ga.: Wilkes, 1973.

Stanley, George. Canada Invaded, 1775–1776. Toronto: Hakkert, 1973.

Stokely, Jim. Fort Moultrie: Constant Defender. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1985.

Stone, William Leete. The Campaign of Lieut. Gen. John Burgoyne, and the Expedition of Lieut. Col. Barry St. Leger. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

Stradley, Wilson. "Antony Wayne on the Hudson River." Valley Forge Journal 3, no. 4 (1987): 288–307.

Thayer, Theodore. The Making of a Scapegoat: Washington and Lee at Monmouth. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1976.

———. Yorktown: Campaign of Strategic Options. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.

Thompson, Ray. Washington along the Delaware: The Battles of Trenton and Princeton as Told by the Men Who Were There and through Washington's Own Official Dispatches. Fort Washington, Pa.: Bicentennial Press, 1970.

———. Washington at Germantown. Fort Washington, Pa.: Bicentennial Press, 1971.

———. Washington at Whitemarsh: Prelude to Valley Forge. Rev. ed. Fort Washington, Pa.: Bicentennial Press, 1974.

Tourtellot, Arthur Bernon. William Diamond's Drum: The Beginning of the War of the American Revolution. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959.

U.S. Army War College. The Battle of Camden, South Carolina, August 16, 1780. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1929.

Valliant, Joseph N., Jr. Revolution's Fate Sealed at Sea. Herndon, Va.: Empire Press, 1995.

Wallace, Willard M. Appeal to Arms: A Military History of the American Revolution. New York: Harper & Bros., 1951.

Ward, Christopher. The War of the Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1952.

White, Katherine Keogh. The Kings Mountain Men: The Story of the Battle, with Sketches of the American Soldiers Who Took Part. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1966.

Widmer, Kemble. The Christmas Campaign: The Ten Days of Trenton and Princeton. Trenton: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1975.

Williams, John Andrew. The Battle for Hubbardton: The American Rebels Stem the Tide. Montpelier: Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1988.

Wilson, Samuel M. Battle of Blue Licks, August 19, 1782. Lexington, Ky.: n.p., 1927.

Winfield, Charles H. The Block-House by Bull's Ferry. New York: W. Abbatt, 1904.

Wingo, Elizabeth B. The Battle of Great Bridge. Chesapeake, Va.: Norfolk County Historical Society, 1964.

Wrike, Peter J. The Governors' Island: Gwynn Island during the Revolution. Gwynn, Va.: Gwynn Island Museum, 1993.

Young, Bennet Henderson. History of the Battle of Blue Licks. Louisville, Ky.: Morton, 1897.

The War of 1812

Albright, Harry. New Orleans: Battle of the Bayous. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1990.

Allen, Robert S. "A History of Fort George, Upper Canada." Canadian Historic Sites 11 (1974): 61–93.

Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border: The Canadian-American Tragedy, 1813–1814. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981.

Bilow, John A. Chateaugay, N.Y. and the War of 1812. Plattsburgh, N.Y.: Payette & Simms, 1984.

Bowlus, Bruce. "A 'Signal Victory': The Battle for Fort Stephenson, August 1–2, 1813." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 63 (1991): 43–57.

Burdick, Virginia Mason. Captain Thomas Macdonough: Delaware Born Hero of the Battle of Lake Champlain. Wilmington: Delaware Heritage Press, 1991.

Carter, Samuel. Blaze of Glory: The Fight for New Orleans, 1814–1815. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1971.

Carter-Edwards, Dennis. "The War of 1812 along the Detroit Frontier: A Canadian Perspective." Michigan Historical Review 13 (1987): 18–26.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. The Battle of New Orleans, An Informal History of the War That Nobody Wanted: 1812. New York: Crown, 1961.

Coleman, Margaret. The American Capture of Fort George, Ontario. Ottawa: Department of Northern and Indian Affairs, 1977.

Coles, Harry L. The War of 1812. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Compton, Smith C. The Battle of Queenston Heights, U.C. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Cross, Charles. The Chesapeake: A Biography of a Ship. Chesapeake, Va.: Norfolk County Historical Society, 1968.

Cruikshank, Ernest A. The Battle of Fort George. Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada: Niagara Historical Society, 1904.

———. "The Defense of Mackinac." Canadian History 1 (1900): 195–201.

Dillon, Richard. We Have Met the Enemy: Oliver Hazard Perry, Wilderness Commodore. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

Ellison, David. "David Wingfield and Sacket's Harbor." Dalhousie Review 52 (1972): 407–413.

Everest, Allan S. The War of 1812 in the Champlain Valley. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1981.

Graves, Donald E. The Battle of Lundy's Lane: On the Niagara in 1814. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation, 1993.

———. Red Coats & Grey Jackets: The Battle of Chippewa, 5 July, 1814. Niagara Falls, N.Y.: Dundurn Press, 1994.

Green, Ernest. Lincoln at Bay. A Sketch of 1814. Welland, Canada: Tribune-Telegraph Press, 1923.

Havinghurst, Walter. Three Flags at the Straits: The Forts of Mackinac. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds. Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC Clio, 1997.

Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler. Old Hickory's War: Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1996.

Hollis, Ira N. The Frigate Constitution: The Central Figure of the Navy under Sail. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931.

Horgan, Thomas P. Old Ironsides: An Illustrated History of USS Constitution. Dublin, N.H.: Yankee, 1980.

Keefer, Frank H. Beaver Dams. Thorold, Canada: Thorold Post, 1914.

Lewis, Dennis M. British Naval Activity on Lake Champlain during the War of 1812. Plattsburg, N.Y., and Elizabethtown, N.Y.: Clinton County Historical Association and Essex County Historical Association, 1994.

Lord, Walter, The Dawn's Early Light. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.

Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Seapower in Its Relation to the War of 1812. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919.

Malcomson, Robert, and Thomas Malcomson. HMS Detroit: The Battle for Lake Erie. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990.

Marine, William Matthew. The British Invasion of Maryland, 1812–1815. Baltimore: Society for the War of 1812 in Maryland, 1913.

Martin, Tyrone G. A Most Fortunate Ship: A Narrative History of Old Ironsides. Rev. ed. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Montross, Lynn. "An Amphibious Doubleheader." Marine Corps Gazette 42 (1957): 131–140.

Muller, Charles G. The Darkest Day: The Washington-Baltimore Campaign. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963.

———. The Proudest Day: Macdonough on Lake Champlain. New York: Curtis Books, 1960.

Owen, David A. Fort Erie: An Historical Guide. n.p.: Niagara Parks Commission, 1986.

Padfield, Peter. Brooke and the Shannon. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1968.

Preston, Richard A. "The First Battle of Sacket's Harbor." Historic Kingston 2 (1963): 3–7.

Pullen, H. F. The Shannon and the Chesapeake. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1970.

Ramsay, Jack C. Jean Laffite: Prince of Pirates. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1996.

Reilly, Robin. The British at the Gates: The New Orleans Campaign. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1974.

Quimby, Robert S. The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: An Operational and Command Study. 2 vols. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1997.

Richardson, John. Richardson's War of 1812. Toronto: Historical Publishing, 1902.

Rimini, Robert V. The Battle of New Orleans. New York: Viking, 1999.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Naval War of 1812. Reprint ed. St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1970.

Sellar, Robert. The U.S. Campaign of 1813 to Capture Montreal. 2d ed. Huntingdon, Quebec: Gleaner Office, 1914.

Shomette, Donald. Flotilla Battle for the Patuxent. Solomons, Md.: Calvert Marine Museum Press, 1981.

Skaggs, David Curtis, and Gerard T. Altoff. A Signal Victory: The Lake Erie Campaign, 1812–1813. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Stanley, George F. G. Battle in the Dark: Stoney Creek, 6 June, 1813. Toronto: Balmuir, 1991.

Sugden, John. Tecumseh's Last Stand. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Swanson, Neil H. The Perilous Fight. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1945.

Welsh, William J., and David C. Skaggs. War on the Great Lakes: Essays Commemorating the 175th Anniversary of the Battle of Lake Erie. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1991.

Whitehorne, Joseph. While Washington Burned: The Battle for Fort Erie. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation, 1992.

Whitfield, Carol. "The Battle of Queenston Heights." Canadian Historic Sites 11 (1974): 9–59.

Wilder, Patrick A. The Battle of Sackett's Harbour and the Struggle for Lake Ontario. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation, 1994.

Young, Bennett H. The Battle of the Thames. Louisville, Ky.: John P. Morton, 1903.

Zaslow, Morris, ed. The Defended Border: Upper Canada and the War of 1812. Toronto: Macmillan, 1964.

The Mexican-American War

Battalla de la Mesa: The Battle of the Mesa, 1847. Los Angeles: East Side, 1926.

Bauer, Jack K. The Mexican War, 1846–1848. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

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Carleton, James Henry. The Battle of Buena Vista. New York: Harper, 1848.

Clark, Kimball. "The Epic March of Doniphan's Missourians." Missouri Historical Review 80, no. 2 (1986): 134–155.

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Winders, Richard Bruce. The Boys for Mexico: Mr. Polk's Army. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.

Woodward, Arthur. Lances at San Pascual. San Francisco, Calif.: California Historical Society, 1948.

Wynn, Dennis. The San Patricio Soldiers: Mexico's Foreign Legion. El Paso: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1984.

The Civil War

Alberts, Don E. The Battle of Glorieta: Union Victory in the West. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1998.

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Armour, Robert. The Attack upon and the Defense of Fort Sanders, Knoxville, Tennessee, November 29, 1863: An Eyewitness Account. Knoxville, Tenn.: Fine Arts Press, 1991.

Armstrong, Richard L. Jackson's Valley Campaign: The Battle of McDowell, March 11–May 18, 1862. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1990.

Bailey, Ronald H. Battles for Atlanta: Sherman Moves East. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1985.

Bannister, Donald. Long Day at Shiloh. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981.

Baltz, Louis J. The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 27–June 13, 1864. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1994.

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Bearss, Edwin C. Battle of Five Forks. 2d ed. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1985.

———. Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battles of Brice's Creek Roads and Tupelo, 1864. Washington, D.C.: National Parks Service, 1972.

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Blackford, Charles Minor: Campaign and Battle of Lynchburg, Virginia: Lynchburg, Va.: Warwick House, 1994.

Boatner, Mark M., III. The Civil War Dictionary. Rev. ed. New York: David McKay, 1988.

Bowman, John, ed. The Civil War Almanac. New York: World Almanac, 1983.

Bradley, Mark L. Last Stand in the Carolinas: The Battle of Bentonville. Campbell, Calif.: Savas Publishing, 1996.

Brocke, Heros von. The Great Cavalry Battle of Brandy Station, 9 June 1863. Winston-Salem, N.C.: Palaemon Press, 1976.

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Burchard, Peter, "We'll Stand by the Union": Robert Gould Shaw and the Massachusetts Regiment. New York: Facts on File, 1993.

The Campaign for Atlanta and Sherman's March to the Sea: Essays on the Civil War in Georgia. 2 vols. Campbell, Calif.: Savas, 1994.

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———. Spotsylvania Campaign: May 7–21, 1864. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1997.

———. The Wilderness Campaign: May 1864. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1993.

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———. The Centennial History of the Civil War. 3 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961–1965.

———. The Civil War. New York: American Heritage Press, 1985.

———. Gettysburg: The Final Fury. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.

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Colling, B. Franklin. Monocacy: The Battle That Saved Washington. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1997.

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Cooling, B. Franklin. Fort Donelson's Legacy: War and Society in Kentucky and Tennessee, 1862–1863. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

———. Fort Henry and Donelson: The Key to the Confederate Heartland. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Cottom, Robert I., Jr., and Mary Ellen Hayward. Maryland in the Civil War: A House Divided. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

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———. No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

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Current, Richard N. Lincoln and the First Shot. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1963.

Daly, Robert W. How the Merrimac Won: The Strategic Story of the C.S.S. Virginia. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1957.

Daniel, Larry J. Island No. 10: Struggle for the Mississippi Valley. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1996.

———. Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

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Davis, William C. Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War. Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, 1977.

———. The Battle of New Market. 2d ed. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1993.

DeKay, James Tertius. Monitor : The Story of the Legendary Civil War Ironclad and the Man Whose Invention Changed the Course of History. New York: Walker, 1997.

Delauter, Roger U. The Third Battle of Winchester. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1997.

Dowdey, Clifford. The Seven Days: The Emergence of Lee. Reprint ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

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Ecelbarger, Gary L. We Are In for It!: The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1997.

Editors of Civil War Times Illustrrated. Struggle for Vicksburg: The Battles and Siege That Decided the Civil War. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1967.

Edrington, Thomas S. The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Gettysburg in the West, March 26–28, 1862. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

Eicher, David J. The Civil War in Books: An Analytical Bibliography. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1996.

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Evans, Clemet, ed. Confederate Military History. 13 vols. Atlanta: Confederate Publishing, 1899.

Evans, David. Sherman's Horsemen: Union Cavalry Operations in the Atlanta Campaign. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Farwell, Byron. Balls Bluff: A Small Battle and Its Long Shadow. McLean, Va.: EPM, 1990.

Fassinito, William A. Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978.

Finfrock, Bradley. Across the Rappahannock: From Fredericksburg to the Mud March. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1994.

Fitzgerald, W. Norman, Jr. President Lincoln's Blockade and the Defense of Mobile. Madison: Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, 1954.

Fonielle, Chris E. The Wilmington Campaign: Last Rays of Departing Hope. Campbell, Calif.: Savas, 1997.

Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. 3 vols. New York: Random House, 1974.

Franklin, Robert Morris. Battle of Galveston, January 1, 1863. Galveston, Tex.: San Luis Press, 1975.

Frazier, Donald S. Cottonclads! The Battle of Galveston and the Defense of the Texas Coast. Abilene, Tex.: McWhiney Foundation Press, McMurray University, 1998.

Fuchs, Richard L. An Unerring Fire: The Massacre at Fort Pillow. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994.

Furgurson, Ernest B. Chancellorsville, 1863: The Souls of the Brave. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Gaff, Alan D. Brave Men's Tears: The Iron Brigade at Brawner Farm. Rev. ed. Dayton, Ohio: Morningside, 1988.

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———. The Confederate War. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.

———, ed. The First Day at Gettysburg: Essays on Confederate and Union Leadership. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1992.

———, ed. The Second Day at Gettysburg: Essays on Confederate and Union Leadership. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.

———, ed. The Third Day at Gettysburg and Beyond. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

———, ed. The Spotsylvania Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

———, ed. Three Days at Gettysburg. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1999.

———, ed. The Wilderness Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Garrison, Webb B. Atlanta and the War. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1995.

———. Lincoln's Little War. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1997.

Gindlesperger, James. Seed Corn of the Confederacy: The Story of the Cadets of the Virginia Military Institute at the Battle of New Market. Shippensburg, Pa.: Burd Street Press, 1997.

Gragg, Rod. Confederate Goliath: The Battle of Fort Fisher. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

Greene, A. Wilson, and Gary. W. Gallagher. National Geographic Guide to the Civil War National Battlefield Parks. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1992.

Groom, Winston. Shrouds of Glory: From Atlanta to Nashville: The Last Great Campaign of the Civil War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1995.

Grunder, Charles S. The Second Battle of Winchester, June 12–15, 1863. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1989.

Hafendorfer, Kenneth A. Perryville: Battle for Kentucky. Louisville, Ky.: KH Press, 1991.

Hamilton, James J. The Battle of Fort Donelson. South Brunswick, N.J.: T. Yoseloff, 1968.

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Hankinson, Alan. First Bull Run, 1861: The South's First Victory. London: Osprey, 1991.

Harrison, Noel Garraux. Chancellorsville Battlefield Sites. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1990.

Hartwig, D. Scott, ed. The Battle of Antietam and the Maryland Campaign of 1862: A Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1990.

Hassler, Warren W. Crisis at the Crossroads: The First Day at Gettysburg. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1970.

Hastings, Earl C. A Pitiless Rain: The Battle of Williamsburg, 1862. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1997.

Hearn, Chester G. The Capture of New Orleans, 1862. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

———. Mobile Bay and the Mobile Campaign: The Last Great Battles of the Civil War. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.

Henderson, William D. The Road to Bristoe Station: Campaigning with Lee and Meade, August 1–October 20, 1863. 2d ed. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1987.

Hendrickson, Robert. Sumter, The First Day of the Civil War. Chelsea, Mich.: Scarborough House, 1990.

Hennessy, John. The First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence July 18–21, 1861. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, 1989.

Hodgkins, William Henry. The Battle of Fort Stedman (Petersburg, Virginia) March 25, 1865. Boston: author, 1889.

Hoffmann, John. The Confederate Collapse at the Battle of Missionary Ridge. The Reports of James Patton Anderson and His Brigade Commanders . . . Dayton, Ohio: Morningside, 1985.

Hopkins, Garland Evans. The First Battle of Modern Naval History. Richmond, Va.: House of Dietz, 1943.

Horn, John. The Destruction of the Weldon Railroad, Deep Bottom, Globe Tavern, and Reams Station, August 14–25, 1864. Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc., 1991.

———. The Petersburg Campaign: June 1864–April 1865. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1993.

Horn, Stanley Fitzgerald. The Decisive Battle of Nashville. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956.

Howe, Barbara J. "The Civil War at Bulltown." West Virginia History 44, no. 1 (1982): 1–40.

Howell, H. Grady. Hills of Death: The Battle of Champion Hill. Madison, Miss.: Chickasaw Bayou Press, 1993.

Hughes, Nathaniel Cheairs, Jr. The Battle of Belmont: Grant Strikes South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

———. Bentonville: The Final Battle of Sherman and Johnston. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Huske, Benjamin R. (Walter Brown, Jr., ed.). "More Terrible than Victory." Civil War Times Illustrated 20, no. 6 (1981): 28–31.

Jaynes, Gregory. The Killing Ground: Wilderness to Cold Harbor. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1986.

Johnson, Curt, and Mark McLaughlin. Civil War Battles. New York: Fairfax Press, 1977.

Johnson, Ludwell H. The Red River Campaign: Politics and Cotton in the Civil War. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.

Johnson, Robert Underwood, and Clarence Clough, eds. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. New York: Century, 1887.

Johnson, R. M. Bull Run: Its Strategy and Tactics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1913.

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Kelly, Dennis. Kennesaw Mountain and the Atlanta Campaign: A Tour Guide. Marietta, Ga.: Kennesaw Mountain Historical Association, 1990.

Kennedy, Francis H., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.

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Kitchens, Ben Earl. Rosecrans Meets Price: The Battle of Iuka, Mississippi. Florence, Ala.: Thornwood Books, 1982.

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Krick, Robert K. Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

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———. The Second Bull Run Campaign, July–August 1862. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1997.

———. The Shiloh Campaign, March–April, 1862. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1996.

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———. Stones River: Bloody Winter in Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990.

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———. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

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———. The Naval History of the Civil War. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

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Park, Hugh, ed. Pea Ridge: The Place Where the South Lost the Civil War. Van Buren, Ark.: Press-Argus, 1961.

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Peterson, Cyrus Asbury, and Joseph Mills Hanson. Pilot Knob, the Thermopylae of the West. Reprint ed. Cape Girardeau, Mo.: Ramfire Press, 1964.

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———. Gettysburg: The Second Day. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

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———. Nowhere to Run. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1995.

———. Victory without Triumph: The Wilderness, May 6th & 7th, 1864. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1996.

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Other Wars

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