Close Window

 

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

Date: 1748 

Treaty at a Glance

Completed
October 18, 1748, at Aix-la-Chapelle, France (present-day Aachen, Germany)

Signatories
Great Britain, Hapsburg Empire (Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, etc.), Sardinia, the United Provinces of the Low Countries (Netherlands), and Prussia, France, Spain, Modena, and Genoa

Overview
The Treaty of Utrecht, concluded in 1713, ended the War of the Spanish Succession and was intended to bring about a permanent peace in Europe through a stable balance of power there. In fact, relative peace and stability endured until 1740. In that year, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI of Austria, died without a male heir. By virtue of the Pragmatic Sanction (1713), Charles's daughter Maria Theresa had been guaranteed possession of the Hapsburg lands, but nevertheless, Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia seized the Austrian province of Silesia, touching off the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48). The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which concluded the war, brought little territorial change to Europe, except for the Prussian possession of Silesia; however, it did mark the emergence of Prussia as a major military power in Europe.

 

Original spellings have been retained in this document

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)



October 18, 1748



In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all those, whom it shall or may concern, in any manner whatsoever. Europe sees the day, which the Divine Providence had pointed out for the re-establishment of its repose. A general peace succeeds to the long and bloody war, which arose between the most serene and most potent Prince George II. by the Grace of God, King of Great-Britain, France and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, Arch-Treasurer and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. and the most Serene and most potent Princess Mary Theresa, by the Grace of God, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, &c. Empress of the Romans, on the one part; and the most Serene and most potent Prince Lewis XV, by the Grace of God, the most Christian King, on the other; as also between the King of Great-Britain, the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and the most Serene and most potent Prince Charles Emanuel III. by the Grace of God; King of Sardinia, on the one part, and the most Serene and most potent Prince Philip V. by the Grace of God, King of Spain and the Indies, (of glorious memory) and after his decease, the most Serene and most potent Prince Ferdinand VI. by the Grace of God, King of Spain and the Indies, on the other; In which war the high and mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries had taken part, as auxiliaries to the King of Great-Britain; and the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; and the most Serene Duke of Modena, and the most Serene Republick of Genoa, as auxiliaries to the King of Spain. God, in his mercy, made known to all these powers, at the same time, the way which he had decreed for their reconciliation, and for the restoration of tranquility to the people, whom he had subjected to their government. They sent their ministers to Aix la Chapelle, where those of the King of Great-Britain, his most Christian Majesty, and of the States General of the United Provinces, having agreed upon preliminary conditions for a general pacification; and those of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of his Catholick Majesty, of the King of Sardinia, of the Duke of Modena, and of the Republick of Genoa, having acceded thereunto, a general cessation of hostilities, by sea and land, happily ensued. In order to compleat, at Aix la Chapelle, the great work of a peace, equally stable and convenient for all parties, the high contracting powers have nominated, appointed, and provided with their full powers, the most illustrious and most excellent Lords their Ambassadors extraordinary, and Ministers Plenipotentiary, viz. His Sacred Majesty the King of Great-Britain, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount Hinchinbrook, Baron Montagu of St. Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords regents of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the States General of the United Provinces, and Sir Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia.

His Sacred most Christian Majesty, Alphonso Maria Lewis Count de St. Severin of Arragon, Knight of his orders, and John Gabriel de la Porte du Theil, Knight of the order of our Lady of Mount Carmel, and of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, Counsellor of the King in his councils, Secretary of the chamber, and of the cabinet of his Majesty, of the orders of the Dauphin, and of Mesdames of France.

Her Sacred Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Wenceslaus Anthony Count of Kaunitz Rittberg, Lord of Essens, Stedesdorff, Wittmund, Austerlitz, Hungrischbrod, Wite, &c. actual intimate Counsellor of State to their Imperial Majesties.

His Sacred Catholick Majesty, the Lord Don James Massone de Lima and Sotto Major, Gentlemen of the bed-chamber to his Catholick Majesty, and Major General of his Forces.

His Sacred Majesty the King of Sardinia, Don Joseph Ossorio, Knight, Grand Croix and Grand Conservator of the military order of the Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and Envoy extraordinary of his Majesty the King of Sardinia to his Majesty the King of Great-Britain; and Joseph Borre Count Chavanne, his Counsellor of State, and his Minister to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces.

The High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces, William Count Bentinck, Lord of Rhoon and Pendrecht, on of the Nobles of the Province of Holland and West Friesland, Curator of the University of Leyden, &c. &c. &c. Frederick Henry Baron of Wassenaer, Lord of Catwyck and Zand, one of the Nobles of the Province of Holland and West Friesland, Hoog-Heemrade of Rhynland, &c. Gerard Arnout Hasselaer, Burgomaster and Counsellor of the city of Amsterdam, Director of the East-India company; John Baron of Borsele, First Noble and Representative of the nobility in the States, in the council and admiralty of Zealand, Director of the East India Company; Onno Zwier Van Haren, Grietman of West-Sterlingwers, 'Deputy-Counsellor of the Province of Friesland, and Commissary-General of all the Swiss and Grison troops in the service of the aforesaid States General, and respective Deputies in the assembly of the States General, and in the council of State, on the part of the Provinces of Holland and West Friesland, Zealand, and Friesland.

The most Serene Duke of Modena, the Sieur Count de Monzone, his Counsellor of State, and Colonel in his service, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his most Christian Majesty.

The most Serene Republick of Genoa, the Sieur Francis Marquis Doria.

Who, after having communicated their full powers to each other, in due form, copies whereof are annexed at the end of this present treaty; and having conferred on the several objects, which their Sovereigns have judged proper to be inserted in this instrument of General pacification, have agreed to the several articles, which are as follows,

I.

There shall be a Christian, universal and perpetual peace, as well by sea as land, and a sincere and lasting friendship between the eight powers above-mentioned, and between their heirs and successors, kingdoms, states, provinces, countries, subjects and vassals, of what rank and condition soever they may be, without exception of places or persons. So that the high contracting powers may have the greatest attention to maintain between them and their said states and subjects, this reciprocal friendship and correspondence, not permitting any sort of hostilities to be committed, on one side or the other, on any cause, or under any pretence whatsoever; and avoiding every thing that may, for the future, disturb the union happily re-established between them; and, on the contrary, endeavouring to procure, on all occasions, whatever may contribute to their mutual glory, interest and advantage, without giving any assistance or protection, directly or indirectly, to those who would injure or prejudice any of the contracting parties.

II.

There shall be a general oblivion of whatever may have been done or committed during the war, now ended. And all persons, upon the day of the exchange of the ratifications of all the parties, shall be maintained or re-established in the possession of all the effects, dignities, ecclesiastical benefices, honours, revenues, which they enjoyed, or ought to have enjoyed, at the commencement of the war, notwithstanding all dispossessions, seizures, or confiscations occasioned by the said war.

III.

The treaties of Westphalia of 1648; those of Madrid, between the crowns of England and Spain, of 1667, and 1670; the treaties of peace of Nimegen of 1678, and 1679; of Ryswick of 1697; of Utrecht of 1713; of Baden of 1714; the treaty of the Triple Alliance of the Hague of 1717; that of the Quadruple Alliance of London of 1718; and the treaty of peace of Vienna of 1738, serve as a basis and foundation to the general peace, and to the present treaty: and, for this purpose, they are renewed and confirmed in the best form, and as if they were herein inserted, word for word; so that they shall be punctually observed for the future in all their tenour, and religiously executed on the one side and the other; such points however, as have been derogated from in the present treaty, excepted.

IV.

All the prisoners made on the one side and the other, as well as by sea as by land, and the hostages required or given during the war, and to this day, shall be restored, without ransom, in six weeks at latest, to be reckoned from the exchange of the ratification of the present treaty; and it shall be immediately proceeded upon after that exchange: And all the ships of war, as well as merchant vessels, that shall have been taken since the expiration of the terms agreed upon for the cessation of hostilities at sea, shall be, in like manner, faithfully restored, with all their equipages and cargoes; and sureties shall be given on all sides for payment of the debts, which the prisoners or hostages may have contracted in the states, where they had been detained, until their full discharge.

V.

All the conquests, that have been made since the commencement of the war, or which, since the conclusion of the preliminary articles, signed the 30th of April last, may have been or shall be made either in Europe, or the East or West Indies, or in any other part of the world whatsoever, being restored without exception, in conformity to what was stipulated by the said preliminary articles, and by the declarations since signed; the high contracting parties engage to give orders immediately for proceeding to that restitution, as well as to the putting the most serene Infant Don Philip in possession of the states, which are to be yielded to him by virtue of the said preliminaries, the said parties solemnly renouncing, as well for themselves as for their heirs and successors, all rights and claims, by what title or pretence soever, to all the states, countries and places, that they respectively engage to restore or yield; saving, however, the reversion stipulated of the States yielded to the most serene Infant Don Philip.

VI.

It is settled and agreed, that all the respective restitutions and cessions in Europe shall be entirely made and executed on all sides in the space of six weeks, or sooner if possible, to be reckoned from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty of all the eight parties above-mentioned; so that, within the same term of six weeks, the most Christian King shall restore, as well to the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, as to the States General of the United Provinces, all the conquests which he has made upon them during this war.

The Empress of Hungary and Bohemia shall be put, in consequence hereof, in full and peaceable possession of all that she possessed before the present war in the Low Countries, and elsewhere, except what is otherwise regulated by the present treaty.

In the same time the Lords the States General of the United Provinces shall be put in full and peaceable possession, and such as they had before the present war, of the places of Bergen-op-Zoom and Maestricht, and of all they possessed before the said present war in Dutch Flanders, Dutch Brabant, and elsewhere:

And the towns and places in the Low Countries, the sovereignty of which belongs to the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, in which their High Mightinesses have the right of garrison, shall be evacuated to the troops of the Republick, within the same space of time.

The King of Sardinia shall be in like manner, and within the same time, entirely re-established and maintained in the Dutchy of Savoy, and in the country of Nice, as well as in all the states, countries, places and forts conquered, and taken from him on occasion of the present war.

The most serene Duke of Modena, and the most serene Republick of Genoa, shall be also, within the same time, entirely re-established and maintained in the states, countries, places and forts conquered and taken from them during the present war, conformably to the tenour of the 13th and 14th articles of this treaty, which relate to them.

All the restitutions and cessions of the said towns, forts and places, shall be made, with all the artillery and warlike stores, that were found there on the day of their surrender, during the course of the war, by the powers who are to make the said cessions and restitutions and this according to the inventories which have been made of them, or which shall be delivered bona fide, on each side. Provided that, as to the pieces of artillery, that have been removed elsewhere to be new cast, or for other uses, they shall be replaced by the same number of the same bore, or weight in metal. Provided also, that the places of Charleroy, Mons, Athe, Oudenarde, and Menin, the outworks of which have been demolished, shall be restored without artillery. Nothing shall be demanded for the charges and expences employed in the fortifications of all the other places; nor for other publick or private works, which have been done in the countries that are to be restored.

VII.

In consideration of the restitutions that his most Christian Majesty, and his Catholick Majesty make, by the present treaty, either to her Majesty the Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, or to his Majesty the King of Sardinia, the Duchies of Parma, Placentia and Guastalla shall, for the future belong to the most serene Infant Don Philip, to be possessed by him and his male descendants, born in lawful marriage, in the same manner, and in the same extent, as they have been, or ought to be, possessed by the present possessors; and the said most serene Infant, or his male descendants, shall enjoy the said three duchies, conformably and under the conditions expressed in the acts of cession of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of the King of Sardinia.

These acts of cession of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of the King of Sardinia, shall be delivered, together with their ratifications of the present treaty, to the Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the Catholick King, in like manner as the ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiaries of the most Christian King and Catholick King, shall deliver, with the ratifications of their Majesties, to the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the King of Sardinia, the orders to the generals of the French and Spanish troops to restore Savoy and the county of Nice to the persons appointed by that Prince to receive them; so that the restitution of the said states, and the taking possession of the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, by or in the name of the most serene Infant Don Philip, may be effected within the same time, conformably to the acts of cession, the tenor whereof follows.

We Mary Theresa, &c. make known by these presents: Whereas, in order to put an end to the fatal war, certain preliminary articles were agreed upon the 30th of April of this year, between the ministers plenipotentiaries of the most serene and most potent Prince George II. King of Great-Britain, and the most serene and most potent Prince Lewis XV. the most Christian King, and. their high Mightinesses the States General of the United Provinces, which have been since ratified by all the powers concerned. The tenor of the 4th article whereof is conceived in the following manner.

The duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla shall be yielded to the most serene Infant Don Philip to serve him, as an establishment, with the right of reversion to the present possessors, after that his Majesty the King of the Two Sicilies shall have succeeded to the Crown of Spain; as also in case the said most serene Infant Don Philip should happen to die without children.

And whereas a definitive treaty of peace having since been concluded the several points relating to this affair, have been, by virtue of the articles thereof, explained by the common consent of the parties concerned, in the following manner.

In consideration of the restitutions, that his most Christian Majesty and his Catholick Majesty make, by the present treaty, either to her Majesty the Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, or to his Majesty the King of Sardinia, the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla shall, for the future, belong to the most serene Infant Don Philip, to be possessed by him, and his male descendants born in lawful marriage, in the same manner, and the same extent, as they have been or ought to be possessed by the present possessors; and the said most serene Infant, or his male descendants, shall enjoy the said three duchies, conformably and under the conditions expressed in the acts of cession of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of the King of Sardinia.

These acts of cession of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of the King of Sardinia, shall be delivered, together with their ratifications of the present treaty, to the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the Catholick King, in like manner as the ambassadors extraordinary, and plenipotentiaries of the most Christian King and Catholick King shall deliver, with the ratifications of their Majesties, to the ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiaries of the King of Sardinia, the orders to the Generals of the French and Spanish troops to restore Savoy and the county of Nice, to the persons appointed by that Prince to receive them; so that the restitution of the said states, and the taking possession of the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, by or in the name of the most serene Infant Don Philip, may be effected in the same time, conformably to the said acts of cession.

Wherefore, in order to fulfil those things, to which we have bound ourselves by the articles before inserted, and in the firm hope, that the most Christian and Catholick Kings, and the future possessor of the aforesaid three duchies, and his male descendants will, on their part, bona fide, and punctually, fulfil the tenor of the articles abovementioned, and will likewise restore to us, within the same time, the states and places which are to be restored to us, in consequence of the second and eighteenth articles of the same preliminaries we do yield and renounce, for us and our successors, under the conditions expressed in the above-mentioned articles, all rights, claims and pretensions to us under any title or cause whatsoever belonging, upon the aforesaid three Duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, formerly possessed by us; and to transfer the same rights, claims and pretensions, in the best and most solemn manner possible, to the most serene Don Philip Infant of Spain, and his male descendants, to be born in lawful marriage, absolving all the inhabitants of the said duchies from the allegiance and oath, which they have taken to us, who shall be obliged, for the future, to pay the same allegiance to those to whom we have yielded our rights; all which however is to be understood only for that space of time, that either the said most serene Infant Don Philip, or one of his descendants, shall not have ascended either the throne of the Two Sicilies, or of Spain; for at that time, and in case the aforesaid Infant should die without male descendants, we expressly reserve to ourselves, our heirs and successors, all rights, claims and pretensions, which have heretofore belonged to us, and consequently the right of reversion to the said duchies. In witness whereof, &c.

Charles Emanuel, &c. The desire we have to contribute, on our part, to the most speedy re-establishment of the publick tranquility, which lately induced us to accede to the preliminary articles, signed the 30th of April last between the minister of his Britannick Majesty, his most Christian Majesty, and the Lords the States General of the United Provinces, which we did, on the 31st of May last by our plenipotentiary, accordingly accede to, inducing us now to accomplish as much as is to be performed, on our part, in pursuance of them; and particularly for the execution of what is contained in the fourth article of the said preliminaries, by virtue whereof the duchies of Parma, Placentia and Guastalla, are to be yielded to the most serene Prince Don Philip, Infant of Spain, to hold, as an establishment, with the right of reversion to the present possessors, as soon as his Majesty the King of the two Sicilies shall have succeeded to the crown of Spain, or that the said Infant should happen to die without issue male; we, in conformity thereto, do, by the present act, renounce, yield, and transfer, for ourselves and our successors, to the aforesaid most serne Infant Don Philip, and to his male issue and their descendants born in lawful marriage, the town of Placentia, and the Plaisantine, (whereof we were possessed) to be held and possessed by him as Duke of Placentia; renouncing to this end all rights, claims and pretensions, which we have upon them; reserving, however, expresly to us, and our successors, the right of reversion, in the cases above-mentioned.

In witness whereof, &c.

VIII.

In order to secure and effectuate the said restitutions and cessions, it is agreed, and that they shall be entirely executed and accomplished on all sides, in Europe, within the term of six weeks, or sooner, if possible, to be reckoned from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of all the eight powers; it being provided, that in fifteen days after the signing of the present treaty, the Generals, or other persons, whom the high contracting parties shall think proper to appoint for that purpose, shall meet at Brussels and at Nice, to concert and agree on the method of proceeding to the restitutions, and of putting the parties in possession, in a manner equally convenient for the good of the troops, the inhabitants, and the respective countries; but so that all and each of the high contracting powers may be agreeable to their intentions, and to the engagements contracted by the present treaty, in full and peaceable possession, without any exception, of all that is to be acquired to them, either by restitution or cession, within the said term of six weeks, or sooner if possible, after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty by all the said eight powers.

IX.

In consideration that, notwithstanding the reciprocal engagement taken by the 18th article of the preliminaries, importing, that all the restitutions and cessions should be carried on equally, and should be executed at the same time, his most Christian Majesty engages, by the 6th article of the present treaty, to restore, within the space of six weeks, or sooner if possible, to be reckoned from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, all the conquests which he has made in the Low Countries; whereas it is not possible, considering the distance of the countries, that what relates to America should be effected within the same time, or even to fix the time of its entire execution; his Britannick Majesty likewise engages on his part to send to his most Christian Majesty, immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, two persons of rank and consideration, who shall remain there as hostages, till there shall be received a certain and authentik account of the restitution of Isle Royal called Cape Breton, and of all the conquests which the arms or subjects of his Britannick Majesty may have made before, or after the signing of the preliminaries, in the East and West-Indies.

Their Britannick and most Christian Majesties oblige themselves likewise to cause to be delivered, upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, the duplicates of the orders addressed to the commissaries appointed to restore, and receive, respectively, whatever may have been conquered, on either side, in the said East and West-Indies, agreeably to the 2d article of the preliminaries, and to the declarations of the 21st and 31st of May, and the 8th of July last, in regard to what concerns the said conquests in the East and West-Indies. Provided nevertheless that Isle Royal, called Cape Breton, shall be restored with all the artillery and warlike stores, which shall have been found therein on the day of its surrender, conformably to the inventories, which have been made thereof, and in the condition that the said place was in, on the said day of its surrender. As to the other restitutions, they shall take place conformably to the meaning of the second article of the preliminaries, and of the declarations and convention of the 21st and 31st of May, and 8th of July last, in the condition in which things were on the 11th of June, N.S. in the West-Indies, and on the 31st of October, also N.S. in the East-Indies. And every thing besides shall be re-established on the foot that they were or ought to be before the present war.

The said respective commissaries, as well those for the West, as those for the East-Indies, shall be ready to set out on the first advice that their Brittannick and most Christian Majesties shall receive of the exchange of the ratifications, furnished with all the necessary instructions, commissions, powers, and orders, for the most expeditious accomplishment of their said Majesties intentions, and of the engagements taken by the present treaty.

X.

The ordinary revenues of the countries that are to be respectively restored or yielded, and the impositions laid upon those countries for the entertainment and winter quarters of the troops, shall belong to the powers that are in possession of them, till the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, without, however, its being permitted to proceed to any kind of execution, provided sufficient security has been given for the payment; it being always to be understood, that the forage and utensils for the troops shall be furnished till the evacuations; in consequence of which, all the powers promise and engage not to demand or exact impositions and contributions which they may have laid upon the countries, towns and places that they have possessed during the course of the war, and which had not been paid at the time that the events of the said war had obliged them to abandon the said countries, towns, and places; all pretensions of this nature being made void by the present treaty.

XI.

All the papers, letters, documents, and archives, which were in the countries, estates, towns and places which are restored, and those belonging to the countries yielded, shall be respectively, and bona fide, delivered or given up at the same time, if possible, as possession shall be taken, or at farthest two months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty of all the eight parties, in whatever places the said papers or documents may be, namely, those which may have been removed from the archive of the great council of Mechlin.

XII.

His Majesty the King of Sardinia shall remain in possession of all that he antiently and newly enjoyed, and particularly of the acquisition which he made in the year 1743, of the Vigevanasque, a part of the Pavesan, and the county of Anghiera, in the manner as this prince now possesses them, by virtue of the cessions that have been made of them to him.

XIII.

The most serene Duke of Modena, by virtue as well of the present treaty, as of his rights, prerogatives and dignities, shall take possession six weeks, or sooner if possible, after the exchange of the ratifications of the said treaty, of all his states, places, forts, countries, effects, and revenues, and, in general of all that he enjoyed before the war.

At the same time shall be likewise restored to him, his archives, documents, writings, and moveables of what nature soever they may be, as also the artillery, and warlike stores, which shall have been found in his countries, at the time of their being seized. As to what shall be wanting, or shall have been converted into another form, the just value of the things so taken away, and which are to be restored, shall be paid in ready money; which money, as well as the equivalent for the fiefs, which the most serene Duke of Modena possessed in Hungary, if they are not restored to him, shall be settled and adjusted by the respective generals or commissaries, who, according to the 8th article of the present treaty, are to assemble at Nice in fifteen days after the signature, in order to agree upon the means for executing the reciprocal restitutions and putting in possession, so that at the same time, and on the same day as the most serene Duke of Modena shall take possession of all his states, he may likewise enter into the enjoyment either of his fiefs in Hungary, or of the said equivalent, and receive the value of such things as cannot be restored to him. Justice shall also be done him, within the same time of six weeks after the exchange of the ratifications, with respect to the allodial effects of the House of Guastalla.

XIV.

The most serene Republick of Genoa, as well by virtue of the present treaty, as of its rights, prerogatives, and dignities, shall re-enter into the possession, six weeks, or sooner if possible, after the exchange of the ratifications of the said treaty, of all the states, forts, places, countries, effects, of what nature soever they may be, rents and revenues, that it enjoyed before the war; particularly, and all and every one of the members and subjects of the said republick shall, within the aforesaid term, after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, re-enter into the possession, enjoyment, and liberty of disposing of all the funds, which they had in the bank of Vienna in Austria, in Bohemia, or in any other part whatsoever of the states of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and of those of the King of Sardinia; and the interest shall be exactly and regularly paid them, to be reckoned from the said day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.

XV.

It has been settled and agreed upon between the eight high contracting parties, that for the advantage and maintenance of the peace in general, and for the tranquility of Italy in particular, all things shall remain there in the condition they were in before the war; saving, and after, the execution of the dispositions made by the present treaty.

XVI.

The treaty of the Assiento for the trade of Negroes, signed at Madrid on the 26th of March, 1713, and the article of the annual ship, making part of the said treaty, are particularly confirmed by the present treaty, for the four years during which the enjoyment thereof has been interrupted, since the commencement of the present war, and shall be executed on the same footing, and under the same conditions, as they have or ought to have been executed before the said war.

XVII.

Dunkirk shall remain fortified on the side of the land, in the same condition as it is at present; and as to the side of the sea, it shall remain on the footing of former treaties.

XVIII.

The demands of money that his Britannick Majesty has, as Elector of Hanover, upon the crown of Spain; the differences relating to the abbey of St. Hubert; the enclaves of Hainault; and the bureaux newly established in the Low Countries; the pretensions of the Elector Palatine; and the other articles, which could not be regulated, so as to enter into the present treaty, shall be amicably adjusted immediately by the commissaries appointed for that purpose, on both sides, or otherwise, as shall be agreed on by the powers concerned.

XIX.

The 5th article of the treaty of the Quadruple Alliance, concluded at London the 2d of August, 1718: containing the guaranty of the succession to the kingdom of Great-Britain in the house of his Britannick Majesty now reigning, and by which every thing has been provided for, that can relate to the person who has taken the title of King of Great-Britain, and to his descendants of both sexes, is expressly confirmed and renewed by the present article, as if it was here inserted in its full extent.

XX.

His Britannick Majesty, as Elector of Brunswick Lunebourg, as well for himself, as for his heirs and successors, and all the states and possessions of his said Majesty in Germany, are included and guarantied by the present treaty of peace.

XXI.

All the powers interested in the present treaty, who have guarantied the Pragmatick Sanction of the 19th of April 1713, for the whole inheritance of the late Emperor Charles VI. in favour of his daughter the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, now reigning, and of her descendants for ever, according to the order established by the said Pragmatick Sanction, renew it in the best manner possible; except, however, the cessions already made, either by the said Emperor, or the said Princess, and those stipulated by the present treaty.

XXII.

The Dutchy of Silesia, and the county of Glatz, as his Prussian Majesty now possesses them, are guarantied to that Prince by all the powers, parties and contractors of the present treaty.

XXIII.

All the powers contracting and interested in the present treaty, reciprocally and respectively guaranty the execution thereof.

XXIV.

The solemn ratifications of the present treaty, expedited in good and due form, shall be exchanged in this city of Aix la Chapelle, between all the eight parties, within the space of one month, or sooner if possible, to be reckoned from the day of its signature.

In witness whereof, we the under-written their Ambassadors Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiaries, have signed with our hands, in their name, and by virtue of our full powers, the present treaty of peace, and have caused the seals of our arms to be put thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle, the 18th of October, 1748

(L.S.) SANDWICH.
(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.
(L.S.) ST. SEVERIN D'ARAGON.
(L.S.) LA PORTE DU THEIL.
(L.S.) W. BENTINCK.
(L.S.) G. A. HASSELAER.
(L.S.) F. V. BORSSELLE.
(L.S.) O. Z. VAN HAREN.

Separate Articles.

Some of the titles made use of by the contracting powers, either in the full powers, and other acts during the course of the negotiation or in the preamble of the present treaty, not being generally acknowledged, it has been agreed, that no prejudice shall at any time result therefrom to any of the said contracting parties; and that the titles taken or omitted on either side, on account of the said negotiation, and of the present treaty, shall not be cited, or any consequence drawn therefrom.

II.

It has been agreed and determined, that the French language made use of in all the copies of the present treaty, and which may be used in the act of accession, shall not be made a precedent that may be alledged, or drawn into consequence, or in any manner prejudice any of the contracting powers; and that they conform themselves for the future to what has been and ought to be observed with regard to, and on the part of powers, who are used and have a right to give and receive copies of like treaties and acts in another language than the French.

The present treaty, and the accessions, which shall intervene, having still the same force and effect, as if the aforesaid practice had been therein observed: and the present separate articles shall have likewise the same force, as if they were inserted in the treaty.

In witness whereof, we the under-written Ambassadors Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, of his most Christian Majesty, and of the Lords the States General of the United Provinces, have signed the present separate articles, and caused the seals of our arms to be put thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle, the 18th of October, 1748.

(L.S.) SANDWICH.
(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.
(L.S.) ST. SEVERIN D'ARACON.
(L.S.) LA PORTE DU THEIL.
(L.S.) W. BENTINCK.
(L.S.) G. A. HASSELAER.
(L.S.) F. V. BORSSELLE.
(L.S.) O. Z. VAN HAREN.

His Britannick Majesty's Full Power.

GEORGE, the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Arch Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire, and Prince Elector, &c. To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting. Whereas, in order to perfect the work of a general peace, so happily begun, and to bring it, as soon as possible, to the desired conclusion, we have thought proper to invest two fit persons with the title and character of our ambassadors extraordinary, and plenipotentiaries at the present congress; Know ye therefore, that we, having entire confidence in the zeal, judgment, skill and abilities in managing great affairs, of our right trusty and well-beloved Cousin, John Earl of Sandwich, as also our trusty and well-beloved Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and our minister plenipotentiary to our good sister the Empress of Germany, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, have named, made, constituted and appointed, as we by these presents name, make constitute and appoint, them our true and undoubted ambassadors extraordinary, ministers, commissioners, deputies, procurators and plenipotentiaries, giving unto them, or each of them, jointly or separately, all and all manner of power and authority, as well as our general and special command, (yet so, that the General do not derogate from the special, or otherwise) to repair to Aix la Chapelle, or to any other place where the treaty and negotiations for the above-mentioned peace and tranquility may be to be carried on; and there, for us, and in our name, together with the ambassadors, commissioners, deputies, and plenipotentiaries of the Princes and States, whom it may concern, properly vested with the same power and authority, to meet, in congress and conference, either singly and separately, or jointly and in a body; and with them to agree upon, treat, consult and conclude what may be necessary for making a firm stable peace, and re-establishing a sincere friendship and good harmony; and to sign for us, and in our name, every thing so agreed upon, and concluded; and to make a treaty or treaties upon what shall have been so agreed and concluded, and to do and transact all matter, which may appertain to the finishing the abovesaid work, in as ample manner and form, and with equal force and efficacy, as we ourselves could do, if personally present, engaging, and on our royal word promising, that whatever things shall be transacted and concluded by our said ambassadors extraordinary, and plenipotentiaries, or by either of them, shall be agreed to, acknowledged and accepted by us, in the fullest manner; and that we will never suffer, either in the whole, or in part, any person whatsoever to infringe or act contrary to the same. In witness whereof we have signed these presents with our royal hand, and have caused to be affixed thereto our great seal of Great-Britain. Given at our palace at Herrnhausen the thirtieth/tenth day of July/August in the year of our Lord 1748, and in the twenty-second year of our reign.

The most Christian King's full power.

LEWIS, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre, To all those, to whom these Presents shall come, greeting. Whereas we are desirous of omitting nothing in our power, in order to accelerate the conclusion of the great and salutary work of peace, and the re-establishment of the publick tranquility, trusting entirely to the capacity and experience, zeal and fidelity for our service of our dear and well-beloved the Count de St. Severin d'Aragon, Knight of our orders, and the Sieur de la Porte du Theil, Counsellor in our councils, secretary of our chamber and cabinet, and of the commands of our most dear and most beloved son the Dauphin. For these causes, and other good considerations us thereto moving, we have commissioned and ordained them, and by these presents signed with our hand, do commission and ordain and have given them, and do give to the one and to the other jointly, as well as to either of them separately, in case of absence, or indisposition of the other, full power, commission, and special order, in our name, and in the quality of our ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiaries, to agree with the ambassadors and ministers actually assembled at Aix la Chapelle for the conclusion of a peace, provided with full powers in good form on the part of their masters, to settle, conclude, and sign such treaties, articles, and conventions, as the one and the other together, or either of them, in the aforesaid case of absence or indisposition of the other, shall think good, and chiefly the definitive treaty, which shall re-establish a solid peace and perfect union between us and the Princes and States formerly at war, or auxiliaries of the powers at war; promising on the faith and word of a King, to accept, keep firm and stable for ever, accomplish and execute punctually, all that the said Count de St. Severin d'Aragon, and the said Sieur de la Porte du Theil or either of them, in the said cases of absence or indisposition of the other, shall have stipulated, promised and signed by virtue of this present power, without ever contravening the same, or suffering it to be contravened, for what cause, or under what pretext soever; as also to cause our letters of ratification thereof to be dispatched in good form, and exchanged in the time that shall be agreed upon: For such is our pleasure. In witness whereof, we have caused our seal to be put to these presents. Given at Fontainebleau the seventh day of October, in the year of Grace 1748, and of our reign the thirty-fourth.

(Signed) LEWIS,
(And lower) BY THE KING,
(Signed) BRULART.
And sealed with the great seal in yellow wax.

The States General's Full Power.

The States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. To all those, who shall see these presents, greeting. Whereas we desire nothing more ardently, than to see the war, with which Christendom is at present afflicted, terminated by a good peace, and the city of Aix la Chapelle has been agreed upon for the place of the conferences; We, by the same desire of putting a stop, as far as shall be in us, to the desolation of so many provinces, and to the effusion of so much Christian blood, have been willing to contribute thereto all that depends upon us; and, so this end, to depute the said assembly some persons out of our own body, who have given several proofs of the knowledge and experience which they have of public affairs, as well as of the affection which they have for the good of our state.

And whereas the Sieurs William Count Bentinck, Lord of Rhoon and Pendrecht, of the body of Nobles of the province of Holland and West-Frizeland, Curator of the University of Leyden, &c. Frederick Henry Baron Wassenaer, Lord of Catwyck and Zand, of the body of Nobles of the province of Holland and West-Frizeland, Hoog-Heem-rade of Rhynland, &c. Gerard Arnold Hasselaer, Schepen and Senator of the city of Amsterdam, and Director of the East-India Company; and Onno Zwier van Haren, Grietman of West Stellingwers, deputed Counsellor of the province of Frizeland, and Commissary-General of all the Swiss and Grison troops in our service; respective deputies in our assembly, and in the council of state, on the part of the provinces of Holland and West-Frizeland and Frizeland, have distinguished themselves in several employments of importance for our service, in which they have given marks of their fidelity, application and address in the management of affairs; for these causes, and other good considerations us thereunto moving, We have commissioned, ordained and deputed the said Sieurs Bentinck, Wassenaer, Hasselaer, and Van Haren, do commission, ordain and depute them, by these presents and have given and do give unto them full power, commission, and special order, to go to Aix la Chapelle, in quality of our Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries for the peace, and there to confer with the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Most Christian Majesty, and his allies, provided with sufficient powers, and there to treat of the means of terminating and pacifying the differences which at present occasion the war; and our said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, all together, or any of them, or any one among them, in case of absence of the others, by sickness or other impediment, shall have power to agree about the same, and thereupon to conclude and sign a good and sure peace, and, in general, to transact, negotiate, promise, and grant whatever they shall think necessary to the said effect of the peace, and generally to do every thing that we could do, if we were there present, even though a more special power, and order, not contained in these presents, should be necessary for that purpose; promising sincerely and bona fide, to accept and keep firm and stable whatever by our said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, or by any, or any one of them, in case of sickness, absence, or other impediment of the others, shall have been stipulated, promised and granted, and thereof to cause our letters of ratification to be dispatched, in the time that they shall have promised in our name to furnish them. Given at the Hague in our assembly, under our great seal, the paraphe of the President of our assembly, and the signature of our First Grissier, the eighth day of March, 1748.

(Signed) H. VAN ISSELMUDEN, VT.

By order of the said Lords the States-General,

(Signed) H. FAGEL.

The States General's Full Power.

The States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. To all those, who shall see these presents, greeting. Whereas we desire nothing more ardently, than to see the war, with which Christendom is at present afflicted, terminated by a good peace; and the city of Aix la Chapelle has been agreed upon for the place of the Conferences; We by the same desire of putting a stop, as far as shall be in Us, to the desolation of so many provinces, and to the effusion of so much Christian blood, have been willing to contribute thereto all that depends upon us; and, to this end, have already deputed some persons heretofore to the said assembly out of our own body, who have given several proofs of the knowledge and experience, which they have of publick affairs, as well as of the affection, which they have for the good of our state; To wit, the Sieurs William Bentinck, Lord of Rhoon and Pendrecht, of the body of Nobles of the province of Holland and West-Frizeland, Curator of the university of Leyden, &c. Frederick Henry Baron Wassenaer, Lord of Catwyck and Zand, of the body of Nobles of the province of Holland and West-Frizeland, Hoog-Heemrade of Rhynland &c. Gerard Arnold Hasselaer, Schepen and Senator of the city of Amsterdam, and director of the East-India Company; and Onno Zwier Van Haren, Grietman of West-Stellingwerss, deputed counsellor of the province of Frizeland, and Commissary-General of all the Swiss and Grison troops in our service; respective deputies in our assembly, and in the council of state, on the part of the provinces of Holland and West-Frizeland, and Frizeland. And whereas we have at present thought proper to join a fifth person to the four above-mentioned, for this same purpose; and the Sieur John Baron Van Borssele, first Noble, and representing the nobility, in the states, in the council, and in the admiralty of Zeeland, director of the East-India Company, and deputy in our assembly on the part of the said province of Zeeland, has distinguished himself in several employments of importance for our service, in which he has given marks of his fidelity, application and address in the management of affairs; For these causes, and other good considerations Us thereunto moving, We have commissioned, ordained and deputed the said Sieur Van Borssele, do commission, ordain, and depute him, by these presents, and have given, and do give unto him full power, commission, and special order, to go to Aix la Chapelle, in quality of our Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for the peace, and there to confer with the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Most Christian Majesty and his Allies, provided with sufficient full powers, and there to treat of the means of terminating and pacifying the differences, which at present occasion the war, and our said Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, together with the said Sieurs Bentinck, Wassenaer, Hasselaer, and Van Haren, our other four Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, or with any, or any one of them, or even alone, in case of absence of the others, by sickness or other impediment, shall have power to agree about the same, and thereupon to conclude and sign a good and sure peace, and in general to transact, negociate, promise, and grant, whatever he shall think necessary for the said effect of the peace, and generally do every thing that we could do, if we were there present even tho' a more special power and order, not contained in these presents should be necessary for that purpose; promising sincerely, and bona fide, to accept and keep firm and stable, whatever by the said Sieur Van Borssele, together with our other four Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, or any, or any one of them, or by him alone, in case of sickness, absence, or other impediment of the others, shall have been stipulated, promised, and granted, and thereof to cause our letters of ratification to be dispatched, in the time that they shall have promised in our name to furnish them. Given at the Hague, in our assembly, and the signature of our First Gressier, the 25th day of April, 1748.

(Signed) H. V. HAMERSIER, VT.

By order of the said Lords the States General,

(Signed) H. FAGEL.

THE ACCESSION OF THE EMPRESS QUEEN OF HUNGARY.

In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all, whom it shall or may concern. The Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, of his most Christian Majesty, and of the High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the United Provinces, having concluded and signed, in this city of Aix la Chapelle, on the 18th day of this present month of October, upon the basis of the preliminaries which were agreed upon and concluded between them the 30th day of April of the present year, a general and definitive treaty of peace, and two separate articles, the tenor of which treaty and separate articles follows.

Fiat Insertio

And the said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries having, in a friendly manner, invited the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary on her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, to accede thereto, in the name of her said Majesty.

The Ambassadors under-written, that is to say, on the part of the most serene and most potent prince, George the Second, by the grace of God, King of Great-Britain, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount Hinchinbrooke, Baron Montagu of St. Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords of the Regency of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces; and Sir Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and to her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; and on the part of the most serene and most potent Princess Maria Theresia, by the grace of God, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Empress, the Lord Wenceslas Anthony Count de Kaunitz Rittberg, Lord of Essens, Stetesdorff, Wittmund, Austerlitz, Hungrischbrod, Weise, &c. actual Privy Counsellor to their Imperial Majesties, by virtue of their full powers, which they have communicated to each other, and copies whereof are annexed to the end of this present act, have agreed on what follows.

That her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, being desirous of contributing to re-establish and confirm, as soon as possible the repose of Europe, accedes, by virtue of the present act, to the said treaty and two separate articles, without any reserve or exception, in the firm confidence that every thing, which is therein promised to her said Majesty, will be bona fide fulfilled; declaring, at the same time, and promising, that she will, in like manner, most faithfully perform all the articles, clauses and conditions which relate to her.

His Britannick Majesty likewise accepts the present accession of the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and promises, in like manner, to perform, without any reserve or exception, all the articles, clauses and conditions, contained in the said treaty and the two separate articles before inserted.

The ratifications of the present act shall be exchanged, in this city of Aix la Chapelle, within the space of three weeks, to be computed from this day.

In witness whereof, we the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, and her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, have signed the present act, and have thereunto affixed the seal of our arms.

Done at Aix la Chapelle, the 23d day of October 1748.

(L.S.) LE COMTE V. A. DE KAUNITZ RITTBERG.
(L.S.) SANDWICH.
(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.

The Empress Queen of Hungary's Full Power.

We MARIA THERESIA, by the Grace of God, Empress of the Romans, and of Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Sclavonia, &c. Queen Arch-Dutchess of Austria, Dutchess of Burgundy, Brabant, Milan, Styria, Carinthia, Carniolia, Mantua, Parma and Placentia, Limburgh, Luxemburgh, Gueldre, Wurtemberg, of the Upper and Lower Silesia, Princess of Suabia, and Transilvania, Marchioness of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, Moravia, and the Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Hapsburg, Flanders, Tirol, Ferrete, Kybourg, Goritia, Gradisca, and Artois, Countess of Namur, Lady of the Marches of Sclavonia, the Port of Naon Saline, and Mechlin, &c. Dutchess of Lorraine and Barr, Great Dutchess of Tuscany, &c. Do make known, and certify, by virtue of these presents. Whereas we are informed, that the congress which had been opened at Breda is dissolved; and that conferences are to be held at Aix la Chapelle, between the ministers of the several princes engaged in the present war, authorized to agree upon the means of terminating the differences that have arisen between them, and restoring peace: And as we have nothing more at heart, than to do every thing, that depends upon us, towards obtaining, as soon as possible, desirable an end, in the most secure and effectual manner; we lose no time in doing our part towards the promoting so salutary a work, by sending thither our Ministers Plenipotentiaries, whom we have, moreover, invested with the character of our Ambassadors. Confiding therefore entirely in the often tried fidelity, experience in business, and great prudence of our actual Privy Counsellor, Wenceslaus Anthony de Kaunitz & Rittberg, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, as also of Thaddaeus, Free Baron of Reischach, our Lord of the Bed-chamber, Counsellor of the government of Anterior Austria, and our Minister to the High and Mighty the States General of the United Provinces; both of whom, and each of them, we have invested with the character of our Ambassador, as well as with full powers; as we do accordingly, by these presents, invest them both, and each of them in case of the absence or hindrance of the other, in the most ample manner possible; to the end, that both, or either of them, in case of the absence or hindrance of the other, may join their endeavours with our allies, and their ministers, hold friendly conferences with those of other princes engaged in the present war against us or our allies, and with any one or more of them, furnished with the like full powers and agree upon any matters and things relating thereto, and whatever shall have been so agreed upon, whether jointly, or separately, to sign and seal; and, in a word, to do all those things, in our name, which we ourselves could do, if personally present: Promising, on our Imperial, Royal, and Archiducal word, that we will agree to, accept of, and faithfully fulfill, all and singular such acts, as our aforesaid Ministers Plenipotentiaries, invested over and above with the characters of our Ambassadors, shall have so done, concluded, and signed. In witness, whereof, and for its greater force, we have signed the present full powers with our hand, and ordered our Imperial, Royal and Archiducal seal to be affixed thereto. Given in our city of Vienna, the 19th day of December, in the year 1747, the 8th year of our reign,

(Signed)
MARIA THERESIA,
C. COUNT ULFELD.

By command of her Sacred, Imperial Royal Majesty,

JOHN CHRISTOPHER BARTENSTEIN.

HIS CATHOLICK MAJESTY'S ACCESSION.

In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all those, to whom it shall belong or can belong. The Ambassadors and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, of his most Christian Majesty, and of the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces, having concluded and signed at Aix la Chapelle, the 18th of October this year, a definitive treaty of peace, and two separate articles; the tenour of which treaty and separate articles is as follows.

First Insertio.

And the said Ambassadors and Plenipotentiaries having amicably invited the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of his Catholick Majesty to accede thereto in the name of his said Majesty. The underwritten Ambassadors; to wit, on the part of the most serene and most potent Prince, George the Second, by the grace of God, King of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Arch-Treasurer and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. the Lords, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount of Hinchinbrooke, Baron Montagu of St. Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords Regents of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces; and Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. And on the part of the most serene and most potent Prince, Ferdinand the Sixth, by the grace of God, King of Spain and of the Indies, the Lord Don James Massone de Lima y Soto Mayor, Lord of the Bedchamber of his said Catholick Majesty, and Major General of his armies. By virtue of their full powers, which they have communicated, and copies whereof are added at the end of their present act, have agreed upon what follows.

That his Catholick Majesty, desiring to contribute and concur to re-establish and settle, as soon as possible, the peace of Europe, accedes, by virtue of the present act, to the said treaty, and two separate articles, without any reserve or exception, in a firm confidence, that whatsoever is promised therein to his said Majesty, shall be faithfully fulfilled; declaring at the same time, and promising, that he will also perform most faithfully all the articles, clauses and conditions, which concern him.

In like manner his Britannick Majesty accepts the present accession of his Catholick Majesty; and likewise promises to perform, without any reserve or exception, all the articles, clauses, and conditions, contained in the said treaty, and two separate articles inserted above.

The ratifications of the present act shall be exchanged in this city of Aix la Chapelle in the space of a month, to be computed from this day.

In witness whereof, We the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, and of his Catholick Majesty, have signed the present act, and have caused the seal of our arms to be set thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle the 20th of October, 1748.

(L.S.) DON JAYME MASONES DE LIMA Y SOTO MAYOR.

(L.S.) SANDWICH.

(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.

His Catholick Majesty's Full Power.

FERDINAND, by the Grace of God, King of Castile, of Leon, of Arragon, of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Gallicia, of Mayorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordova, of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarbes, of Algezira, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, of the East and West Indies, islands and Terra Firma of the Ocean Sea, Arch-Duke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, of Brabant and Milan, Count of Hapsburg, of Flanders, Tirol and Barcelona, Lord of Biscay and of Molina, &c. Whereas it has been my most earnest desire, ever since Divine Providence has trusted me with the government of the vast dominions annexed to my crown, to put an honourable end to the troubles in which I found my arms involved, and to concur in giving peace to Europe, by all the just means that should appear most conducive to that end: And whereas I knowing that several ministers, particularly those of the powers now at war, are meeting at Aix la Chapelle with the same view to a general pacification; and it being therefore necessary that I should appoint one to assist on my part, endowed with that fidelity, zeal, and understanding, requisite for such a purpose, and finding in you, Don Jaime Masone de Lima, Lord of my Bedchamber, and Major General of my armies, these special and distinguished qualifications; I do chuse and nominate you, to the end that, invested with the character of my Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, you do repair, in my name, to Aix la Chapelle, and representing, at that place, my own person, you do treat and confer with the minister or ministers of the powers now at war, who do already, or shall hereafter, reside there, or in any other place where it shall be thought convenient to treat; and to the end that you may, in the same manner, conclude and sign with the said ministers, the treaty or treaties, which shall tend to the sole view of producing a solid and honourable peace; and whatever you may thus treat of, conclude, and sign, I do from this time acknowledge as accepted and ratified, and promise, upon my royal word, to observe and fulfill, and to cause the same to be observed and fulfilled in the same manner, as if I myself had treated and conferred upon, concluded and signed the same. To which end, I do hereby give you all my authority and full power, in the most ample manner as by law required. In witness whereof, I have caused the presents to be dispatched, signed with my hand, sealed with my secret seal, and countersigned by my underwritten Counsellor, and Secretary of State, and of the general Dispatch of War, the Revenues, Indies and Marine. Given at Aranjues the 12th of May, 1748.

I THE KING.
CENON DE SOMO DE VILLA.

HIS SARDINIAN MAJESTY'S ACCESSION.

In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all those, to whom it shall or may belong.

The Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, of his most Christian Majesty, and of the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces, having concluded and signed in this city of Aix la Chapelle, the 18th of the month of October last, upon the foundation of the preliminaries at first agreed to and settled amongst them the thirtieth of April of this year, a general and definitive treaty of peace, and two separate articles, the tenor of which treaty and separate articles is as follows.

Fiat Insertio.

And the said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries having amicably invited the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Majesty the King of Sardinia to accede thereto in the name of his said Majesty.

The under-written Ambassadors, to wit, on the part of the most serene and most powerful Prince George the Second, by the Grace of God, King of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, the Lords, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount of Hinchinbrooke, Baron Montagu of Saint Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords Regents of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces; and Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; and on the part of the most serene and most potent Prince, Charles Emanuel the Third, by the grace of God, King of Sardinia, the Lords Don Joseph Ossorio, Chevalier Grand Crois, and Grand Conservator of the military order of the Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and Envoy Extraordinary of his Majesty the King of Sardinia to his Majesty the King of Great-Britain: and Joseph Borre Count de la Chavanne, his Counsellor of State, and his Minister to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces, by virtue of their full powers, which they have communicated to each other, and copies whereof are added at the end of the present act, have agreed upon what follows.

That his Majesty the King of Sardinia, desiring to contribute and concur to re-establish and settle, as soon as possible, the peace of Europe, accedes, by virtue of the present act, to the said treaty and two separate articles, in a firm confidence, that whatsoever is promised therein to his said Majesty, shall be faithfully fulfilled; declaring at the same time, and promising, that he will also perform, most faithfully, all the articles, clauses, and conditions, which regard him.

In like manner, his Britannick Majesty accepts the present accession of his Majesty the King of Sardinia; and likewise promises to perform without reserve or exception, all the articles, clauses, and conditions, contained in the said treaty and the two separate clauses inserted above.

The ratifications of the present act shall be exchanged in this city of Aix la Chapelle, in the space of twenty-five days, to be computed from this day.

In testimony whereof, We the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, and of his Majesty the King of Sardinia, have signed the present act, and have caused the seal of our arms to be set thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle, the seventh of November, one thousand seven hundred forty eight.

(L.S.) OSSORIO.
(L.S.) DE LA CHAVANNE.
(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.

The King of Sardinia's Full Power

CHARLES EMANUEL, by the grace of God, King of Sardinia, of Cyprus, and of Jerusalem; Duke of Savoy, of Montserrat, of Aoste, of Chablais, of Genevois and of Plaisance; Prince of Piedmont and of Oneille; Marquis of Italy, of Saluces, of Susa, of Ivree, of Ceve, of Maro, of Oristan, and of Sesane; Count of Maurlenne, of Geneva, of Nice, of Tende, of Ramont, of Ast, of Alexandria, of Gocean, of Novara, of Tortona, of Vigevano and of Bobbio; Baron of Vaud and of Faucigny; Lord of Verceil, of Pignerol, of Tarantaise, of the Lumelline and of the Valley of Sefia; Prince and perpetual Vicar of the Holy Empire in Italy, &c. To all, who shall see these presents, greetings: Whereas, after having acceded to the preliminary articles of peace, signed the 30th of April last at Aix la Chapelle, We are sincerely desirous of concurring in the perfect re-establishment of the general peace in Europe to which all the powers, that have signed and acceded, as we have done, to the aforesaid preliminary articles, are disposed to give their assistance, by reducing those same preliminary articles, and other acts depending thereon, into one definitive treaty of general peace. For these reasons, and other considerations us thereunto moving, we, trusting in the capacity, experience, zeal and fidelity for our service, of our dear, well-beloved and trusty, the Chevalier Ossorio, Knight Grand Crois and Grand Conservator of our military order of the Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and our Envoy Extraordinary to the King of Great-Britain; and the Count Borre de la Chavanne, our Counsellor of State, our Minister to the Lords the States-General of the United Provinces, and our Minister Plenipotentiary to the conferences of Aix la Chapelle, have named and deputed them, as by these presents we do name and depute them our Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries; and have given them, and do give them, power, commission, and special order in our name, and in the said quality of our Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, to make, conclude and sign, both jointly, or one of them alone, in case of absence, sickness, or other hindrance of the other, with the respective Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of the above-mentioned powers, jointly or separately, provided with powers for that purpose, such definitive treaty of peace, articles, conventions, or acts, as they shall think fit for re-establishing, in a solid manner, the general peace of Europe, or to accede to those, which shall have been already concluded and signed for the same end, willing that they should, upon those occasions, act with the same authority, as we would do, if we were present in person, and even if anything should occur, which might require a more special order, not contained in these presents: promising, upon the faith and word of a King, to observe and cause to be observed, inviolably, all that shall be done, agreed, regulated and signed by the above-mentioned Chevalier Ossorio, and Count de la Chavanne, our Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries, without contravening, or suffering any contravention thereto, directly or indirectly, for what cause, or under what pretext soever it shall or may be; as also to cause to be dispatched, our letters of ratification thereof in due form, to be exchanged within the term which shall be agreed on. In witness whereof, we have signed these presents with our hand, and caused them to be countersigned by the Marquis D. Leopold de Carert de Gorzegne, our first Secretary of state for foreign affairs, and caused the secret seal of our arms to be affixed thereto. Given at Turin, the twenty-fourth of the month of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and forty-eight, and of our reign the nineteenth.

(L.S.) C. EMANUEL.
CARRET DE GORZEGNE.

THE ACCESSION OF THE DUKE OF MODENA.

In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all those, to whom it shall or may belong. The Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Brittanick Majesty, of his most Christian Majesty, and of the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces, having concluded and signed in this city of Aix la Chapelle, the 18th of the present month of October, upon the foundation of the preliminaries, at first agreed upon and concluded amongst them the 30th day of April of this year, a general and definitive treaty of peace and two separate articles; the tenour of which treaty and separate articles follows.

Fiat Insertio.

And the said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries having amicably invited the Minister Plenipotentiary of his most Serene Highness, Francis the Third, by the grace of God, Duke of Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, &c. to accede thereto in the name of his most Serene Highness.

The under-written Ambassadors and Minister Plenipotentiary; to wit, on the part of the most serene and most potent Prince, George the Second, by the grace of God, King of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, the Lords, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount of Hinchinbrooke, Baron Montagu of St. Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords Regents of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces; and Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. And on the part of his most Serene Highness the Duke of Modena, the Sieur Count de Monzone, his Counsellor of State and Colonel in his service, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his most Christian Majesty, by virtue full powers, which they have communicated to each other, and of which copies are added at the end of the present act, have agreed on what follows.

That his most Serene Highness the Duke of Modena, desiring to contribute and concur to re-establish and settle, as soon as possible, the peace of Europe, accedes, by virtue of the present act, to the said treaty, and two separate articles, without any reserve or exception, in a firm confidence, that what is promised to his said most Serene Highness therein, shall be faithfully fulfilled; declaring and promising at the same time, that he will also perform most faithfully all the articles, clauses and conditions, which concern him.

In like manner his Britannick Majesty accepts the present accession of his most Serene Highness the Duke of Modena, and promises likewise to fulfil, without any reserve or exception, all the articles, clauses, and conditions, contained in the said treaty, and the two separate articles, inserted above.

The ratifications of the present act shall be exchanged, in this city of Aix la Chapelle, in the space of three weeks, to be computed from this day.

In testimony whereof, We the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of his Britannick Majesty, and of his most Serene Highness the Duke of Modena, have signed the present act, and have caused the seal of our arms to be set thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle the 25th of October, 1748.

(L.S.) T. ROBINSON.
(L.S.) LE COMTE DE MONZONE.

The Duke of Modena's Full Power. Francis, Duke of Modena, Reggio, Mirandola.

Whereas, in the conferences to be held at Aix la Chapelle, for a general pacification between the powers concerned in the present war, affairs are to be treated of which regard us; for which it is necessary to have a minister there, on whose ability, fidelity and prudence we may safely rely, we have not thought that we could employ any person with greater confidence, on this occasion, than the Count de Monzone, our Counsellor of State, Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of his most Christian Majesty, and Colonel in our service; for which reason we do chuse and depute him for our Minister Plenipotentiary at the said congress, by giving and granting to him, faculty, authority, and full power, with general special order, to treat there, in our name, of all matters which concern us, and to promise, agree to, conclude, stipulate and sign, on our part, whatever he shall judge most convenient for our service; desiring, for this end, the Ministers Plenipotentiary of all the courts concerned, which shall be present at the said congress, to accept of, and acknowledge him, as our Minister Plenipotentiary; promising, on the faith and word of a Prince, to hold as confirmed and ratified, and to approve and observe all that shall be concluded, accepted of, and stipulated by the same Minister Plenipotentiary.

In witness whereof, we have signed these presents, which shall be counter-signed by one of our Ministers, and have our seal affixed thereto. Given at Marseilles this 30th of November, 1748.

(Signed) FRANCESCO,
(And underneath counter-signed)
DE BONDIGLI.

THE REPUBLICK OF GENOA'S ACCESSION.

In the Name of the most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

Be it known to all those, to whom it shall, or may belong.

The Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty of his most Christian Majesty, and of the High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the United Provinces, having concluded and signed, in this city of Aix la Chapelle, on the 18th of the present month of October, upon the foundation of the preliminaries, at first agreed upon and settled amongst them the 30th day of April of the year, present, a general and definitive treaty of peace, and two separate articles, of which treaty and separate articles the tenor is as follows.

Fiat Insertio.

And the said Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiaries having amicably invited the Minister Plenipotentiary of the most Serene Republick of Genoa, to accede thereto, in the name of the said most Serene Republick.

The under-written Ambassadors and Minister Plenipotentiary; to wit, on the part of the most serene and most potent prince, George the Second by the grace of God, King of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, the Lords, John Earl of Sandwich, Viscount of Hinchin-brooke, Baron Montagu of St. Neots, Peer of England, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of the Lords Regents of the kingdom, his Minister Plenipotentiary to the Lords the States General of the United Provinces; and Thomas Robinson, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and his Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, and to her Majesty the Empress Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; and on the part of the most serene Republick of Genoa, the Sieur Francis Marquis Dora, by virtue of their full powers, which they have communicated to each other, and copies whereof are added at the end of the present act, have agreed upon what follows.

That the most Serene Republick of Genoa, desiring to contribute and concur to re-establish and settle the quiet of Europe, accedes, by virtue of the present act, to the said treaty and two separate articles without any reserve or exception, in a firm confidence that whatsoever is promised therein to the said most Serene Republick, shall be faithfully fulfilled; declaring, at the same time, and promising, that she will also perform, most faithfully, all the articles, clauses and conditions, which regard her.

In like manner his Britannick Majesty accepts the present accession of the most Serene Republick of Genoa; and likewise promises to perform without any reserve or exception, all the articles, clauses, and conditions, contained in the said treaty and the two separate articles inserted above.

The ratifications of the present act shall be exchanged, in this city of Aix la Chapelle, in the space of twenty-five days, to be computed from this day.

In testimony whereof, we the Ambassadors Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of his Britannick Majesty, and of the most Serene Republick of Genoa, have signed the present act, and have caused the seal of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Aix la Chapelle, the 28th of October, 1748.

(L.S.) FR. M. MARQUIS D'ORIA
(L.S.) T. ROBINSON

The Republick of Genoa's Full Power.

The Doge, Governors, and Procurators of the Republick of Genoa.

Conscious of the experience, fidelity and zeal of our Patrician Francesco Maria D'Oria, We have chosen and deputed him, as our Minister Plenipotentiary at the conferences of peace at Aquisgrano, othewise Aix la Chapelle, or any other place where the said conferences of peace may hereafter be held, or transferred to, and we have given and conferred upon him, as we do give and confer upon him, ample faculty and full power, with general and special order, to treat there in our name, upon the affairs which regard us, and to agree to, conclude, stipulate, and sign, on our part, whatever he shall apprehend to be most suitable to our interests, and that, in the same manner, as we ourselves, were we present, could do, although a more full and special order than the present might be requisite, desiring for this end, the Ministers Plenipotentiaries of all the courts concerned, which shall be present at the said conferences, to accept of, and acknowledge him, as our Minister Plenipotentiary; promising, on the faith and word of a Prince, to hold as confirmed and ratified, and to observe all that shall be concluded, accepted, stipulated and signed by the same, in virtue of the present full power; as also to dispatch our ratifications in due form, to be exchanged within the time which shall be agreed upon.

In witness whereof, these presents shall be signed by our underwritten Secretary of State, with our usual seal affixed thereto.

Given at our royal palace, this first of March, 1748.

C. GIUSEPPE MARIA SERTORIO,
(L.S.) Secretary of State.

 

Text Citation (Chicago Manual of Style format):

Axelrod, Alan, and Charles L. Phillips. "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)." Encyclopedia of Historical Treaties and Alliances: From Ancient Times to the 1930s, vol. 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2006. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=treaties00017&SingleRecord=True (accessed September 18, 2014).

Primary Source Citation (Chicago Manual of Style format):

Various. "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)." Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=treaties00017&SingleRecord=True (accessed September 18, 2014).

Other Citation Formats:

Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
American Psychological Association (APA) Format

Additional Citation Information

 

Return to Top

Record URL:
http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=treaties00017&SingleRecord=True