Sinagua peoples, thought to have arrived in Southwest region from the north, settled along the Verde River valley in present-day Arizona. A derivative culture, they learned farming techniques from Hohokam Indians and building from Anasazi Indians. They were active in the region from about A.D. 500 to 1400; they reached their cultural climax about 1100, which probably was due to the soil enrichment caused by the previous century's eruption of what is now called Sunset Crater. Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot are Sinagua cliff-dwellings.
NOTE: Civilizations of the Southwest:
The American Southwest stretches from present-day southern Utah and Colorado through Arizona, New Mexico, and a corner of Texas, into northern Mexico. In this rugged, generally infertile terrain of mountain, mesa, canyon, and desert, precontact agriculture attained its highest state of development north of the advanced agrarian civilizations of Mesoamerica. Two factors account for this paradox: first, the region's proximity to Mesoamerica, the cradle of Indian agriculture; and second, the harsh environment of the Southwest with its limited game and edible wild plants, making agriculture a practical and appealing alternative.
With the Mesoamerican influence from the south, three dominant cultures or specializations arose out of the earlier Archaic Desert-Cochise tradition: Mogollon, Hohokam, and Anasazi. For each, the adoption of agriculture made sedentary village life possible and brought about the further development of tools, arts, and crafts, especially pottery. And with extensive interaction, each of the three cultures was influenced by the others. Yet each had distinct characteristics as well.
A fourth culture in the region, the Patayan (or Hakataya), is sometimes treated as related to the pioneer stage of early Hohokam. Three other precontact Southwest peoplesthe Sinagua, Salado, and Fremontare culturally derivative of the major groups, but also warrant discussions.