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Tanis

From: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Revised Edition.

This is the modern Sa'el Hagar, located in the western Delta on an enormous mound at Lake Menzala, an important port. The site was once sacred to the god Set and was a nome capital. The Egyptians called it Dja-net, Djárnet, or Dj'ane. Tanis became important during the Twenty-first Dynasty (1070–945 BCE) and the Twenty-second Dynasty (945–712 BCE), but the Hyksos were also in the region during the Second Intermediate Period (1640–1550 BCE) and a shrine on the site contains the seals of Ramesses II (r. 1290–1224 BCE).

The great temple of Amun in Tanis contains six royal tombs, three of them found intact. The main portion of the tomb and 15 obelisks date to Ramesses II, and the gate of the shrine to the reign of Shoshenq III ( 835–783 BCE).

Another temple on the site was erected in the Thirtieth Dynasty (380–343 BCE). This shrine had a lake on the northeastern corner and was made out of granite with palmiform columns. A limestone gate erected by Ptolemy I Soter (r. 304–284 BCE) was also discovered. Attached to this Amun complex was a temple dedicated to the god Horus, with additional chapels for the deities Mut, Khons (1), and Astarte (Ishtar), who was a Canaanite goddess.

Royal tombs were uncovered as well in the area of Tanis in deep chambers. Osorkon II (r. 883–855 BCE) was buried in a chamber of granite, with adjoining limestone rooms. Takelot II (r. 860–835 BCE) was also discovered in this tomb, which had Osirian decorations. The tomb of Psusennes I (r. 1040–992 BCE) contained his royal remains and those of Psusennes II (r. 959–945 BCE), Amenemope (r. 993–984 BCE), and Shoshenq II (r. 883 BCE). An unidentified mummy was also found there.

The remains of Psusennes I were found buried in a pink granite sarcophagus with a mask of gold, all probably usurped from earlier burial sites. A silver coffin was discovered as well inside the sarcophagus and the remains of Shoshenq III (r. 835–783 BCE) had been deposited there.

 

Text Citation (Chicago Manual of Style format):

Bunson, Margaret. "Tanis." Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Revised Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE49&iPin=EEGY1899&SingleRecord=True (accessed September 1, 2014).

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